Electronic Flora of South Australia
Electronic Flora of South Australia
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Electronic Flora of South Australia genus Fact Sheet

Family: Myrtaceae

Citation: L'Hér., Sert. Angl. 18 (1789).

Derivation: Greek eu, well; kalyptos, covered; alluding to the cap or lid which covers the stamens in the bud.

Synonymy: Not Applicable

Common name: Eucalypts.

Shrubs or multi- (mallees) or single-stemmed trees, when occurring in multi- and single-stemmed forms the latter usually very much the taller; bark rough or smooth; seedling, coppice and juvenile leaves differing markedly from the adult leaves (the term juvenile is here used to include seedlings but excludes those cases where a subadult form predominates on otherwise mature specimens); adult leaves alternate or very rarely opposite, linear to orbicular.

Inflorescence of axillary umbels or of axillary or terminal panicles; buds sessile or pedicellate (as the range of pedicel length in buds and fruits is usually similar, the measurement given under buds is expanded where necessary to include fruiting pedicels); hypanthium hollow, glabrous, cylindrical or obconical to campanulate or globose; sepals and/or petals fused to form 1 or less often 2 opercula which is/are shed as the flowers open; stamens numerous and showy, in several rows, some sometimes sterile, anthers versatile or not, with or without a terminal or dorsal gland; ovary adnate to the lower part or to the whole of the hypanthium, mostly 3- or 4- rarely to 6-celled; style simple; ovules numerous.

Fruit a hardened capsule opening at the top by inserted or exserted valves; seeds various in shape, sometimes winged, glossy or not, often few fertile in each capsule.

Distribution:  About 500 species, mainly in Australia but a few in New Guinea, Indonesia and the Philippines.

Biology: No text

Taxonomic notes: The key to the species is based partly on a manuscript key by C. D. Boomsma. The Subgenera, Sections and Series are taken from L. D. Pryor & L. A. S. Johnson (1971) A classification of the eucalypts, with additions of recent species according to G. M. Chippendale & L. Wolf (1981) The natural distribution of Eucalyptus in Australia. The absence of authors for these names reflects the fact that they are not necessarily in accordance with the international code and must, therefore, be considered to be informal names. L. A. S. Johnson & B. G. Briggs in B. Morley & H. R. Toelken (I 983) Flowering plants in Australia, indicate that in their opinion the subgenera should, once the necessary names have been validated, be treated as genera. "Monocalyptus" would, however, be replaced by the generic name Eucalyptus. The descriptions are based on C. D. Boomsma (1981) Native trees of South Australia (in which all species are illustrated) and G. M. Chippendale in Jessop (1981) Flora of central Australia. There are excellent coloured illustrations of almost all species in S. Kelly (1969-78) Eucalypts (2 vols), and of many in Brooker & Kleinig (1983) Field guide to eucalypts, vol. 1. The illustrations accompanying this text must be used with care as many structures vary considerably and the specimen being compared with them may not closely resemble the illustration. Absolute character differences have not always been found for use in the key and possibly ambiguous leads must be noted. A key based on field characters is to be found in Boomsma (1981).

Key to Species:
1. Buds and fruits in groups of 3
2. Fruits 4.5-5.5 cm broad; buds 3-3.5 cm broad
E. pyriformis 29.
2. Fruits and buds smaller
3. Operculum and hypanthium deeply 5-8-ridged; fruits 1.4-3.5 cm broad; buds 1.8-2 cm broad
E. kingsmillii 27.
3. Operculum and hypanthium smooth or shallowly ridged; fruits and buds usually smaller
4. Key based predominantly on fruit characters
5. Valves strongly exserted from a convex or flat disk
6. Fruit 18-26 mm broad
E. burracoppinensis 25.
6. Fruit 6-8 mm broad
7. Seedling leaves suborbicular, glaucous; fruits often 5-6 mm long
E. rubida 49.
7. Seedling leaves lanceolate, not glaucous; fruits often 6-8 mm long
E. viminalis 50.
5. Valves enclosed or attached to a strongly descending disk
8. Fruit usually more than 2 cm long; seed with a long terminal wing; NW, LE
E. terminalis 2.
8. Fruit usually less than 2 cm long; seeds with a narrow marginal wing or no wing; southern regions
9. Fruits sessile
E. cosmophylla 12.
9. Fruits distinctly pedicellate
E. leucoxylon 63.
4. Key based predominantly on bud characters
10. Outermost anthers aborted
E. leucoxylon 63.
10. All anthers fertile
11. Operculum shorter than the hypanthium
12. Operculum about half as long as the hypanthium; NW, LE
E. terminalis 2.
12. Operculum usually more than half as long as the hypanthium; SL, KI
E. cosmophylla 12.
11. Operculum about as long as or longer than the hypanthium
13. Buds 10-20 mm broad; NW
E. burracoppinensis 25.
13. Buds 3.5-10 mm broad; southern regions
14. Seedling leaves suborbicular, glaucous; fruits often 5-6 mm long
E. rubida 49.
14. Seedling leaves lanceolate, not glaucous; fruits often 6-8 mm long
E. viminalis 50.
1. Buds and fruits in groups of more than 3 (care must be taken to count scars of buds or fruits which have been lost)
15. Subadult leaves predominant on almost all trees, opposite and connate but finally free and subsessile
E. gamophylla 3.
15. Leaves never cormate on mature plants
16. Leaves obovate to obcordate; fruit disk very broad, leaving a narrow orifice (fig. 469F)
E. websterana 30.
16. Leaves and fruits usually not as above
17. Buds and fruits or the majority of them in panicles (including E. lansdowneana although in that species it is not a true particle and may be raceme-like
18. Buds and fruits glaucous
E. albens 56.
18. Buds and fruits not glaucous
19. Key based mainly on fruit characters
20. Valves entirely exserted
E. microtheca 51.
20. Valves enclosed or largely so
21. Fruits 10 mm or more long; seeds with a long terminal wing
22. Fruits 17 mm long or more
E. terminalis 2.
22. Fruits 16 mm long or less
E. sp.aff.dichromophloia 1.
21. Fruits up to 9 mm long or, if longer, then seeds without terminal wings
23. Fruits 1-4-ribbed, 7-12 mm long
E. lansdowneana 58.
23. Fruits smooth, usually less than 7 mm long
24. Fruit sessile or rarely shortly pedicellate
E. behriana 52.
24. Fruit usually distinctly pedicellate
25. Bark smooth, shedding in flakes; fruits usually 6-10 mm long
26. Outer stamens sterile; MU, SL, KI, SE; leaves not bluish
E. fasciculosa 62.
26. All stamens fertile; drier regions; leaves bluish-green
E. intertexta 55.
25. Bark rough on major part of stem and oftenn the branches; fruits usually 3-5 mm long
27. Leaves broad-lanceolate to ovate; NW
E. sparsa 54.
27. Leaves narrow-lanceolate or lanceolate; south-eastern regions
28. Bark greyish; leaves lanceolate; operculum at least as long as the hypanthium
E. microcarpa 57.
28. Bark dark; leaves narrow-lanceolate; operculum shorter than the hypanthium
E. largiflorens 53.
19. Key based mainly on bud and stamen characters
29. Outer stamens sterile
E. fasciculosa 62.
29. All stamens fertile
30. Operculum as long as the hypanthium or longer; buds 6-7 mm long
E. microcarpa 57.
30. Operculum usually shorter than the hypanthium, if as long then buds up to 6 mm long
31. Anthers versatile
32. Buds 8-13 mm long
E. terminalis 2.
32. Buds 5-7 mm long
33. Bark grey, shedding in small roundish flakes to expose yellowish dots; anthers about twice as long as wide
E. sp.aff.dichromophloia 1.
33. Bark rough below, smooth and shedding in flakes above to expose whitish areas; anthers about as long as wide
E. intertexta 55.
31. Anthers adnate to the filaments
34. Hypanthium 1-4-ribbed
E. lansdowneana 58.
34. Hypanthium smooth
35. Leaves waxy, narrow-lanceolate, up to 25 mm broad
E. largiflorens 53.
35. Leaves not waxy, narrow-oblong or lanceolate to ovate, often more than 25 mm broad
36. Pedicels 2-3 mm long; bark shedding in broad flakes; operculum usually much shorter than the hypanthium; NW
E. sparsa 54.
36. Pedicels 0-2 mm long; bark shedding in long strips; widespread but if from the NW the operculum usually almost as long as the hypanthium
37. Leaves broadly lanceolate to ovate, glossy when fresh, 25-55 mm broad
E. behriana 52.
37. Leaves lanceolate, dull, 8-22 mm broad.
E. microtheca 51.
17. Buds and fruits in axillary umbels (once the leaves have dropped the inflorescence may appear paniculate)
38. Buds and young fruits glaucous
39. Crown comprising mostly opposite subadult leaves
40. Subadult leaves grey-green to glaucous, lanceolate
E. gongylocarpa 4.
40. Subadult leaves glaucous, cordate
E. gillii 19.
39. Crown comprising mostly alternate leaves
41. Operculum shorter than the hypanthium; valves enclosed or scarcely exserted
E. striaticalyx 38.
41. Operculum longer than the hypanthium; valves exserted (when newly ripe and undamaged)
42. Operculum conical; leaves ovate or obcordate; fruit disk broader than the area enclosed by the valves.
E. websterana 30.
42. Operculum rostrate or if conical then leaves narrow- to broad-lanceolate; fruit disk narrower than the area enclosed by the valves
43. Valves borne on an ascending disk; anthers broader than long
E. oxymitra 28.
43. Valves borne on a descending disk; anthers longer than broad or about as long
44. Operculum broader than the hypanthium; fruits 8-9 mm broad, often constricted below the orifice
E. yumbarrana 24.
44. Operculum as broad as the hypanthium; fruits 7-8 mm broad, always constricted at the orifice
E. socialis 22.
38. Buds and fruits not glaucous
45. Buds and fruits sessile or subsessile
46. Key based mainly on fruits
47. Valves inserted close to or above the rim
48. Leaves 2-5 cm broad; MU, SL, KI, SE
E. baxteri 6.
48. Leaves 1-2 cm broad; FR, EA
E. flindersii 45.
47. Valves inserted well below rim level although the tips sometimes exserted
49. Fruits much longer than broad, squarish in section; valves deeply enclosed
E. calycogona 31.
49. Fruits about as long as broad, rounded or ribbed in section; valve tips close to the rim
50. Leaves linear-lanceolate or linear-oblong, up to 1 cm broad; anthers cordate
E. cneorifolia 14.
50. Leaves lanceolate to broad-lanceolate, often more than 1 cm broad; anthers obovate or obovoid
51. Seeds red-brown, glossy; bark smooth on most parts, not fibrous; usually multi-stemmed
52. Leaves green, 1-3 cm broad; operculum at least as long as the hypanthium
E. conglobata 35.
52. Leaves blue-green or glaucous, 2-3 cm broad; operculum shorter than the hypanthium
E. cyanophylla 36.
51. Seeds grey-brown-black; bark mainly fibrous; usually single-stemmed
E. goniocalyx 48.
46. Key based mainly on buds
53. Operculum as long as or longer than the hypanthium
54. Anthers cordate
E. cneorifolia 14.
54. Anthers obovoid
55. Leaves dull, grey-green; valves inserted at or above rim-level
E. flindersii 45.
55. Leaves glossy, green; valves inserted well within the capsule
E. conglobata 35.
53. Operculum shorter than the hypanthium
56. Anthers reniform or the outer sterile
57. Bark furrowed, fibrous; leaves lanceolate to subovate, 2-5 cm broad; buds rugose but not ridged; stamens all similar and fertile
E. baxteri 6.
57. Bark smooth; leaves narrow-lanceolate to lanceolate, 0.7-2 cm broad; buds with 4 equally spaced ridges; outer stamens long, sterile
E. calycogona 31.
56. Anthers oblong to obovate, all fertile
58. Leaves dull, blue-green to glaucous; bark mainly smooth; operculum striate
E. cyanophylla 36.
58. Leaves glossy, green; bark mainly rough; operculum smooth
E. goniocalyx 48.
45. Buds and fruits distinctly pedicellate
59. Key based mainly on buds
60. Operculum about as long as the hypanthium or longer
61. Buds strongly urceolate
E. flocktoniae 18.
61. Buds not urceolate
62. Buds faintly ribbed, 8-25 mm long
E. pimpiniana 43.
62. Buds smooth, 4-12 mm long
63. Anthers not versatile
64. Anther gland absent
E. foecunda 33.
64. Anther glands small, terminal
65. Buds often rostrate; bark fibrous; only occurs in the Clare Ranges
E. macrorhyncha 7.
65. Buds not rostrate; bark smooth and flaky or rough and chunky; widespread
66. Buds angular; leaves lanceolate, to 1.8 cm wide, olive-green; rough-barked
E. odorata 59.
66. Buds not angular; leaves linear-lanceolate, to 0.5 cm wide, grey-green; smooth or flaky-barked
E. viridis 61.
63. Anthers versatile
67. Buds ovoid-spherical; operculum much longer than the hypanthium
E. ewartiana 26.
67. Buds elongate or the operculum and hypanthium similar in length
68. Anthers obovate, cordate or obcordate, with a large not terminal gland
69. Stamens arranged spirally under the operculum; anthers with a terminal gland; valves more or less level with the rim
E. diversifolia 5.
69. Stamens erect in the unopened mature bud; anthers with a dorsal gland and apically emarginate; valves exserted or less often more or less level with the rim
70. Leaves ovate-lanceolate; valves more or less level with the rim
E. ovata 48.
70. Leaves narrow-lanceolate to lanceolate; valves exserted
71. Buds 3.5-5 mm broad; seeds yellow; widespread
E. camaldulensis 44.
71. Buds 5-6 mm broad; seeds almost black; far NW
E. incurva 46.
68. Anthers oblong, reniform or globular-reniform, with a small terminal gland
72. Disk flat or convex; operculum conical, equal in length to the hypanthium
E. mannensis 15.
72. Disk descending; operculum conical, hemispherical or rostrate, longer than or equal to the hypanthium
73. Veins visible; leaves bright- or sage- green
74. Leaves dull, usually uncinate; buds 3-4 mm broad
E. eremicola 17.
74. Leaves glossy, not usually uncinate; buds 5-6 mm broad
E. oleosa 20.
73. Veins obscure; leaves grey- or blue- green
75. Leaf oil glands prominent; operculum narrow-conical
E. peeneri 21.
75. Leaf oil glands obscure; operculum narrowly or broadly conical or rostrate
E. yalatensis 23.
60. Operculum shorter than the hypanthium
76. Hypanthium urceolate; operculum conical or rostrate
E. incrassata 42.
76. Hypanthium not urceolate or, if so, operculum hemispherical
77. Operculum striate or ribbed
78. Hypanthium strongly l-3-ribbed, broader than the operculum; buds 8-11 mm long
E. rugosa 41.
78. Hypanthium smooth or if shallowly many- ribbed then not broader than the operculum and buds up to 8 mm long
79. Operculum overlapping the hypanthium.
E. concinna 40.
79. Operculum not overlapping the hypanthium
80. Hypanthium smooth
E. dumosa 37.
80. Hypanthium striate or shallowly ribbed
81. Hypanthium shallowly ribbed; leaves grey-green
E. calcareana 34.
81. Hypanthium faintly striate; leaves glossy, bright-green
E. brachycalyx 39.
77. Operculum smooth
82. Outer stamens long and sterile
83. Hypanthium 0- or 2-ridged
E. gracilis 32.
83. Hypanthium 4-ridged
E. calycogona 31.
82. All stamens of similar length and fertile
84. Anthers versatile
85. Anther gland large, dorsal; operculum often somewhat rostrate; fruit obconical
E. ovata 47.
85. Anther gland small, terminal or subterminal; operculum conical or rounded; fruit indistinctly obconical
86. Operculum conical, almost as long as the hypanthium; leaves dull
E. trivalvis 13.
86. Operculum hemispherical of if conical then much shorter than the hypanthium; leaves glossy
87. Anthers oblong; buds 7-10 mm long
E. cladocalyx 16.
87. Anthers reniform; buds 4-7 mm long
88. Leaf veins not subparallel; usually many-stemmed
E. remota 10.
88. Leaf veins subparallel; usually single-stemmed; SE
89. Bark smooth; fruits 7-10 mm long
E. pauciflora 9.
89. Bark fibrous; fruits 5-6 mm long
E. willisii 11.
84. Anthers not versatile
90. Operculum much shorter than the hypanthium; anthers reniform; leaves dark-green; bark long-fibrous
E. obliqua 8.
90. Operculum slightly shorter than the hypanthium; anthers globular-reniform; leaves olive- or lettuce-green; bark chunky or subfibrous
91. Buds angular, 2-3 mm broad; leaves olive-green
E. odorata 59.
91. Buds rounded, 3-4 mm broad; leaves lettuce-green
E. porosa 60.
59. Key based mainly on fruits
92. Valves inserted on or above the level of the rim
93. Valves tapering to a fragile point
E. mannensis 15.
93. Valves triangular
94. Seeds yellow; fruit 5-8 mm broad
E. camaldulensis 44.
94. Seeds red-brown or brown to black
95. Bark fibrous; NL
E. macrorhyncha 7.
95. Bark smooth; NW
96. Umbels of 4-7; leaves yellow-green; bark reddish-brown, shedding in incufied strips to reveal a yellowish-green layer
E. ewartiana 26.
96. Umbels of 7-10; leaves grey-green; bark grey, shedding in broad flakes to reveal a pinkish layer
E. incurva 46.
92. Valves inserted below the rim, with their tips included or exserted
97. Valves well exserted
98. Fruit urceolate
E. flocktoniae 18.
98. Fruit hemipherical or subglobose
99. Fruit striate to ribbed or angled
100. Valves, or some of them, diverging
E. brachycalyx 39.
100. Valves erect
101. Pedicels 4-7 mm long
E. concinna 40.
101. Pedicels 1-3 mm long
102. Fruiting peduncles strongly flattened; leaves glossy
E. rugosa 41.
102. Fruiting peduncles robust, angular; leaves dull
E. calcareana 34.
99. Fruit smooth
103. Adult leaves sage-green, yellow-green or bright-green
104. Fruit rim thick; leaves 4-10 mm broad
E. foecunda 33.
104. Fruit rim thin; leaves often more than 10 mm broad
105. Leaves usually uncinate; dull
E. eremicola 17.
105. Leaves not usually uncinate; glossy
E. oleosa 20.
103. Adult leaves greyish or blue-green
106. Fruits 6-8 mm long
E. peeneri 21.
106. Fruits c. 5 mm long
E. yalatensis 23.
97. Valves enclosed or reaching rim level
107. Fruits faintly striate to ribbed or angled
108. Fruit 4 angled in the middle
E. calycogona 31.
108. Fruit more or less rounded in section throughout except sometimes for ribs
109. Valve tips well below the rim
E. cladocalyx 16.
109. Valve tips close to the rim
110. Fruits 15-20 mm long
E. pimpiniana 43.
110. Fruits 3-12 mm long
111. Fruits 10-12 mm long, with a thick rim; pedicels usually 3-7 mm long .
E. incrassata 42.
111. Fruits 5-10 mm long, with a thin rim; pedicels usually 1-3 mm long
112. Seeds glossy; leaves dull; peduncles slender
E. calcareana 34.
112. Seeds dull; leaves glossy; peduncles flattened
E. rugosa 41.
107. Fruits smooth or slightly wrinkled
113. Fruit rim broad (i.e. the wall thick in relation to the size of the fruit)
114. Leaves 4-10 mm broad
E. foecunda 33.
114. Leaves 15-45 mm broad
115. Fruits 8-15 mm broad; operculum about as long as the hypanthium
E. diversifolia 5.
115. Fruits 5-8 mm broad; operculum much shorter than the hypanthium
116. Leaf veins not subparallel; usually many-stemmed; KI
E. remota 10.
116. Leaf veins subparallel; usually single-stemmed; SE
117. Fruits 7-10 mm long
E. pauciflora 9.
117. Fruits 5-6 mm long
E. willisii 11.
113. Fruit rim narrow
118. Leaves 3-5 mm broad
E. viridis 61.
118. Leaves 6-30 mm broad
119. Fruits 7-9 mm broad
E. obliqua 8.
119. Fruits 3-6 mm broad
120. Fruit valve tips narrow and fragile; seeds glossy
E. dumosa 37.
120. Fruit valves deltoid; seeds dull
121. Leaves grey- or blue-green, dull
E. trivalvis 13.
121. Leaves dark-, olive- or mid-green, usually glossy
122. Bark smooth over most of the trunk; operculum much shorter than the hypanthium; leaves dark-green, up to 8 mm broad
E. gracilis 32.
122. Bark rough over most of the trunk; operculum not much shorter than the hypanthium; leaves olive- or mid-green, often over 8 mm broad
123. Leaves olive-green; buds angular, 2-3 mm broad
E. odorata 59.
123. Leaves mid-green; buds rounded, 3-4 mm broad
E. porosa 60.

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