Electronic Flora of South Australia
Electronic Flora of South Australia
Census of SA Plants, Algae & Fungi
Identification tools

Electronic Flora of South Australia genus Fact Sheet

Family: Proteaceae

Citation: Schrader, in Schrader & Wendl., Sert. Hannov. 27 (1797).

Derivation: After Baron Christian Ludwig von Hake, 1745-1818, a German patron of botany.

Synonymy: Not Applicable

Common name: None

Shrubs or small trees, with or without a lignotuber, with an often appressed indumentum of T-shaped eglandular hairs, the dense rust-brown ones on new shoots glabrescent, but the underlying white ones persisting longer; leaves simple or compound, petiolate or sessile, blade or segments entire, rarely (outside S.Aust.)toothed, flat, angular or terete, upper and lower surfaces usually similar in surface and indumentum, sometimes differing in venation.

Inflorescences axillary rarely terminal racemes of flowers arranged in pairs, often reduced and umbelliform, rarely several in panicles, usually developing in a cone-like involucre of deciduous imbricate concave brown bracts; flowers bisexual, rarely cryptically unisexual, pedicellate, perianth in bud irregular, the tube cylindrical, sometimes dilated at the base, curved or reflexed under the globular to ellipsoid limb, rarely almost regular, in S. Aust. glabrous inside; stamens perfect, anthers sessile at the base of the limb, ovate to elliptic, rarely (in Group A) linear, shortly apiculate by an extension of the connective; hypogynous gland a single thick, semi-annular, semi-circular or slightly curved body to one side of the pistil; pistil (in S. Aust.) glabrous, rarely (in Group C) becoming hairy in young fruits; ovary shortly stipitate, lateral, 2-ovulate; style rarely shorter than the perianth, usually elongating faster than the perianth in bud, the upper side of the tube splitting while held in the limb, finally breaking free; pollen-presenter erect or oblique, a disc or a cone with a narrow or broad basal flange.

Fruit a woody tardily dehiscent modified follicle, often narrowed in median view into a broad beak, with the style base narrowed in both planes into a narrow beak, sometimes flanked by a pair of subulate horns, the valves flat inside apart from the seed-cavity, separating fully or partly down both sides; seed displaced to one side, rarely central, collateral, flattened, the seed-body smooth on the face adjacent to the other seed, convex and often sculptured on the other with a slender ridge extending from the apex in a median or lateral position, with a long broad membranous wing produced at the upper end of the body, narrowly decurrent down one or both its margins, rarely surrounding it.

Distribution:  About 125 species; endemic to Australia, mostly temperate, extending to the subtropical north. (W. R. Barker (1985) J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 7:233-247; L. Haegi & W. R. Barker (1985), J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 7:249-271). Hakeas.

Biology: Perianth length is measured in mature bud from the torus to the apex of curvature of the tube. The hypogynous gland length is measured with the flower viewed laterally. Pistil length is measured as if straightened. Fruit length includes the narrow beak.

Taxonomic notes: Hakea baxteri R. Br. was included in all the State's Floras starting from Tate (1890) Hdbk Fl. Extratop. S. Aust. 84, 228. The record was based upon a collection in the Tate Herbarium from "near Eucla", which was then a telegraph station just over the border in W.Aust. This distinctive species with fan-shaped undulate spinose leaves 5-8 cm broad and small reddish flowers in axillary clusters is excluded from the S. Aust. flora until its presence is confirmed. On more tenuous grounds Tate recorded for S. Aust. two other species Hakea nitida R. Br. of W.Aust. and Hakea purpurea Hook. of Qld; these were excluded by J. Black in the second edition of his Flora.

Key to Species:
1. Leaves flat or 3-angled, with longitudinal veins, at least in the form of a prominent mid-vein on the lower side; pollen-presenter erect, narrow-conical or terete, with a narrow oblique basal flange; fruit lacking apical horns
2. Inflorescences with 50-500 flowers, either racemes with a rhachis 2-9 cm long or spherical umbels with pistils 14-19.5 mm long (Group A)
3. Leaves narrowly obovate-spathulate, 0.9-2.9 cm wide; inflorescence a spherical umbel; rhachis 0.6-0.8 cm long; pedicels 5.5-9.5 mm long; fruit with a keel along one suture
H. laurina 2.
3. Leaves narrow-linear, 0.3-1 cm wide; inflorescence a raceme; rhachis 2-9 cm long; pedicels 0.5-3.5 mm long; fruit not keeled
4. Leaves with venation more obscure above, indumentum glabrescent above, persistent below, margins narrowly recurved; inflorescence terminal, not developing in an involucre of bracts
Grevillea striata
4. Leaves with venation equally prominent above and below, equally pubescent above and below, margins flat; inflorescence axillary, developing in a cone of involucral bracts
5. Leaves 8-26 cm, usually 16-22 cm long, with 3-9 longitudinal veins; perianth 3.3-7.5 mm long, pink or red; pistil 16.5-23.5 mm long; fruit with a narrow beak c. 1 mm long
H. francisiana 1.
5. Leaves 4-16 cm, usually 7.5-15 cm long, with 10-21 longitudinal veins; perianth 2-2.7 mm long, cream; pistil 4.5-8 mm long; fruit with a conical narrow beak c. 4-12 mm long
H. minyma 3.
2. Inflorescences with 8-36 flowers, umbelliform racemes with a rhachis 0.25-1 cm long; pistils 3-8.5 mm long (Group B)
6. Leaves with usually 3-5 longitudinal veins, rarely only the mid-vein, on the upper side, as prominent as the midrib on the lower side; plant suckering; seed, if present, with ridge absent or very short
7. Leaves 5-35 cm, usually 9-23 cm long, not twisted; inflorescence-involucre 6-10 mm long, rhachis 2.5-4 mm long; pedicel 3-5 mm long; fruits never developing
H. aenigma 4.
7. Leaves 4-10.5 cm, rarely to 14 cm long, twisted at the base; inflorescence-involucre 2.5-5mm long, rhachis 1-2mm long; pedicel 1.8-3.1, rarely to 3.6 mm long; fruits able to develop
H. repullulans 7.
6. Leaves with the upper side excluding margins lacking prominent veins or mid-vein, rarely on broad leaves the veins on the lower side showing through faintly when dried; plant not suckering; seed with a ridge extending one-third to halfway to the apex of the wing
8. Fruit in median view elliptic to narrowly ovate-elliptic, gradually attenuated into a narrow beak; narrow beak fragile, 4-6.5 mm, rarely 3 mm long; seed wing evenly dark-brown
H. carinata 5.
8. Fruit in median view oblong- to ovate-elliptic, often broadly so, usually with a prominence on either side of the apex in median view below the narrow beak; narrow beak 1-2.5 rarely 4 mm long; seed wing light-brown with dark-brown streaks
H. muelleriana 6.
1. Leaves terete, rarely somewhat flattened, with no veins (including mid-vein) apparent, sometimes (in H. nodosa) a marginal flange
9. Bracts tiny, not forming a deciduous cone about the developing inflorescence; rhachis 2-16 cm long; hypogynous gland horseshoe-shaped, 0.9-3.2 mm long laterally; leaves compound or simple (Group C)
10. Leaves simple, 12-48 cm long; lateral width of fruit 1.7-2 cm
H. suberea 11.
10. Leaves compound, 2-30 cm long; lateral width of fruit 0.5-1.5 cm
11. Perianth tube in the mature bud 2-5 mm long, with the limb slightly oblique; pistil 8.5-11 mm long; pollen-presenter more or less erect
H. ednieana 9.
11. Perianth tube in the mature bud 5.5-12 mm long, reflexed; pistil 18.5-30 mm long; pollen-presenter oblique
12. Branchlets pubescent at apical few nodes, distally glabrous or sparsely pubescent, rarely densely pubescent; leaves glabrous or sparsely pubescent, glabrescent; rhachis sparsely to densely pubescent
H. divaricata 8.
12. Branchlets densely tomentose and leaves densely pubescent over many nodes; rhachis densely tomentose, rarely glabrous
13. Leaves 1.5-9.5 cm long, petiole 0.8-2.5 rarely to 4.5 cm long, final segments 4-15, spreading, 0.2-6 cm X 0.9-1.5 mm, mucro 0.6-2.2 mm long
H. eyreana 10.
13. Leaves 13-30 cm long, petiole 4-18 cm long, final segments 2-5, narrowly spreading, 1.5-17 cm X 1.3-2.5 mm, mucro 1.5-7 mm (fragile)
H. suberea 11.
9. Bracts forming a prominent deciduous cone about the developing inflorescence; rhachis 0.5-1.4 cm long; hypogynous gland a semi- circular or curved plate 0.15-0.75 mm long laterally; leaves simple
14. Leaves flexible, often flattened, sometimes with a flange along each margin; perianth in bud 1.3-2.2 mm long, limb 0.5-0.7 mm long; anthers 0.25-0.3 rarely 0.4 mm long; fruit lacking horns (Group E)
H. nodosa 17.
14. Leaves stiff, terete, without a lateral flange; perianth in bud 2.5-6.5 mm long; limb 0.8-1.7 mm long; anthers 0.3-0.9 mm long
15. Pollen-presenter an oblique disc, sometimes with a central cylinder or cone shorter than the disc diameter; fruits with an erect apex, flanked by a pair of fragile horns (Group D)
16. Perianth glabrous outside; rhachis white-pubescent
17. Leaves grooved below near the base; pedicels sparsely puberulent; rhachis simple or obscurely compound, 0.3-0.8 mm rarely to 2.5 mm long
H. sericea 14.
17. Leaves not grooved; pedicels glabrous
18. Rhachis white-woolly-puberulous, simple, rarely with 1 or 2 basal branches, 6-14 mm long, flowers 18-45; perianth 3-4.5 mm long; seed wing cream to brown- white, decurrent on one side only
H. leucoptera 13.
18. Rhachis white-sericeous, sometimes with brown hairs, simple or shortly branched, 0.5-3 mm long, some-times up to 5 together on the prior years rhachis, 1-10 mm long; flowers 1-14; perianth tube 4-6.5 mm long, seed wing brown to brown-black, decurrent on both sides
H. cycloptera 12.
16. Perianth hairy outside
19. Rhachis white-woolly-pubescent, simple or with 1 or 2 basal branches, 6-14 mm long; flowers 18-45; perianth 3-4.5 mm long
H. leucoptera 13.
19. Rhachis densely more or less appressed-brown-pubescent, 0.5-3 mm long; flowers 1-22; perianth 4-6.5 mm long
20. Rhachis simple; flowers 6-22; fruit smooth or warty, dehiscing fully down both sides; leaves hooked at the apex, sometimes straight; shrub or small tree without witches-broom galls
H. tephrosperma 15.
20. Rhachis compound, a very short knob of up to 4 branches; flowers 1-8, rarely to 14; fruit smooth or with a broadly folded surface, dehiscing fully down one side only; leaves straight; small shrub with witches-broom galls
H. vittata 16.
15. Pollen-presenter an erect or oblique cone of height similar to or greater than the diameter of the basal disc or flange
21. Inflorescence with 16-32 flowers; pedicel and perianth glabrous, cream-yellow; fruit with an erect narrow beak 1-4 mm long, without horns (Group B, partly)
H. muelleriana 6.
21. Inflorescence with 1-10 flowers; pedicel and perianth sericeous, white; fruit sigmoid, with a reflexed beak 3-14 mm long, flanked by 2 horns (Group F)
22. Leaves ascending, 2-15 cm, usually 5-13 cm long, with a broad-triangular basal scar; pistil 7.8-11.5 mm long, permanently deflexed; fruit 2.2-4.5 cm, usually 3-3.8 cm long, broadest laterally in the middle, with a broad band of wood beside the seed-cavity; seed 13-22 mm long
H. rostrata 18.
22. Leaves widely spreading, rarely ascending, 0.6-4 cm rarely to 6 cm long, with a narrow-triangular basal scar; pistil 3.5-5.5 mm long, finally erect; fruit 1.4-2.2 rarely 2.8 cm long, broadest laterally in the upper third, with a narrow band of wood beside the seed-cavity; seed 10-15 mm long
H. rugosa 19.

Author: Not yet available

Disclaimer Copyright Disclaimer Copyright Email Contact:
State Herbarium of South Australia
Government of South Australia Government of South Australia Government of South Australia Department for Environment and Water