Photo W.R.Barker

Photo W.R.Barker

Photo W.R.Barker

Photo W.R.Barker


Hakea plurinervia F.Muell. ex Benth., Fl. Austral. 5: 523 (1870)

T: Rockingham Bay, [Coast Range, Qld], 15th Sept. 1869, J.Dallachy s.n.; syn: K, MEL; isosyn: B, BM, BR, MEL; Rockingham Bay, [Coast Range, Qld], 23rd Mar. 1869, J.Dallachy s.n.; syn: K, L, MEL.


Erect to spreading shrub, 0.5–3 m tall, ?non-sprouting. Branchlets glabrous or sparsely appressed-pubescent at flowering. Leaves narrowly obovate-elliptic, rarely almost linear, often falcate, 8–21 cm long, 9–35 mm wide, narrowly cuneate at base, entire, sometimes undulate, acute or obtuse; longitudinal veins 5–9 above and below; secondary veins reticulate, conspicuous, rarely ±obscure.

Inflorescence solitary with 40–70 flowers; pedicels much longer than perianth, glabrous. Perianth cream-white. Pistil 4.8–5.8 mm long; gland present.

Fruit obliquely ovate-elliptic, ±straight or slightly sigmoidal, 2.5–3.5 cm long, 1.2–1.5 cm wide, obscurely beaked, prominently apiculate. Seed obliquely rhombic-obovate, 20–24 mm long; wing extending narrowly down both sides and around base of body.

Distribution and ecology

Extends along the Great Dividing Ra. in Qld, reaching the coast in some areas, occurring near Brisbane, on the Blackdown Tableland, in the Cardwell area on the Atherton Tableland and reaching as far north as the Daintree R. Found in eucalypt forest, often on rocky sites, in sandy soil.

To plot an up to date distribution map based on herbarium collections for this species see Australia's Virtual Herbarium. Localities outside the native range may represent cultivated or naturalised records.

Flowering time

Flowers May–Sept.

Derivation of name

From pluri-, Latin for many- and nervus, latin for nerve, a reference to the 5-9 longitudinal veins on the leaves of this species.



Part of the Conogynoides group recognised by Bentham and characterised by a conical pollen presenter, veined leaves, glabrous perianth and fruits without horns.


Within this section 12 species were assigned to the informal Undulata group by Barker et al. (1999). This group of Hakea species was combined morphologically because they all have simple flat leaves with 3-7 prominent longitudinal veins, 10-40 small flowers (with 3-10.5 mm long pistils) and decurved woody fruits.

Members of the group are H. ambigua, H. anadenia, H. dactyloides, H. elliptica, H. falcata, H. ferruginea, H. hastata, H. laevipes, H. loranthifolia , H. neurophylla, H. plurinervia and H. undulata , from the eastern states and from SW WA. The newly described H. oligoneura (Nuytsia 19: 254 (2009) from the SW coast of WA belongs with this group.


Flowers dry pale to dark brown. The pedicels are usually cream-white like the perianth but are pink in some specimens.

Representative specimens

Qld: 7 km W of Herberton, 1 km by road N of Herberton–Irvinebank road, B.J.Conn & J. De Campo 1270 (AD, BRI, MEL); Mt Gravatt Cemetery Reserve, Brisbane, J.Gillicatt 541 (BRI); Atherton–Herberton road, A.K.Irvine 733 (BRI).


Link to FloraBase treatment of this species for WA.


More photographs of this species can be seen on the Australian National Botanic Gardens site.

Further illustrations

J.W.Wrigley & M.Fagg, Banksias, Waratahs & Grevilleas 385 (1989);

W.R.Elliot & D.L.Jones, Encycl. Austral. Pl. 5: 226 (1990).