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Foliage, flowers and fruits. Photo P. Kennedy

Foliage, flowers and fruits, closer. Photo P. Kennedy

Synonymy

Hakea falcata R.Br., Suppl. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 29 (1830)

T: south west coast of New Holland, [W.A.], 1828/9, W.Baxter s.n.; ?holo: BM.

Description

Erect shrub, 2–4 m tall, non-sprouting. Branchlets patchily tomentose with pale rust-brown hairs to glabrescent at flowering. Leaves curved, linear to narrowly obovate, flat, 5–14 cm long, 3–9(-14) mm wide, narrowly cuneate at base, entire, acute to acuminate; longitudinal veins 3 (rarely 4), above and below; secondary veins pinnate, inconspicuous to obscure.

Inflorescence solitary with 25–40 flowers; pedicels longer than perianth, glabrous. Perianth cream. Pistil 4.5–6.5 mm long, cream; gland vestigial or absent.

Fruit obliquely narrowly ovate, curved, 2–2.5 cm long, 0.7–1 cm wide, prominently beaked. Seed narrowly ovate, concave towards base abaxially, 17-20 mm long; wing extending fully or partly down one side of body only, blackish brown to black.

Distribution and ecology

Occurs in south-western W.A., between about Busselton and Augusta and east to the Stirling Ra. Usually found in Jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) woodland or open forest in lateritic loam soil, or in sand on poorly drained sites.

To plot an up to date distribution map based on herbarium collections for this species see Australia's Virtual Herbarium. Localities outside the native range may represent cultivated or naturalised records.

Flowering time

Flowers Sept.–Nov.

Derivation of name

From falcatus, Latin for falcate or curved like a sickle, a reference to the curvature of the leaves of this species.

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Relationships

Part of the Conogynoides group recognised by Bentham and characterised by a conical pollen presenter, veined leaves, glabrous perianth and fruits without horns.

 

Within this section 12 species were assigned to the informal Undulata group by Barker et al. (1999). This group of Hakea species was combined morphologically because they all have simple flat leaves with 3-7 prominent longitudinal veins, 10-40 small flowers (with 3-10.5 mm long pistils) and decurved woody fruits.

Members of the group are H. ambigua, H. anadenia, H. dactyloides, H. elliptica, H. falcata, H. ferruginea, H. hastata, H. laevipes, H. loranthifolia , H. neurophylla, H. plurinervia and H. undulata , from the eastern states and from SW WA. The newly described H. oligoneura (Nuytsia 19: 254 (2009) from the SW coast of WA belongs with this group.

Notes

Hakea falcata has heavily sweetly scented flowers, a feature which distinguishes it from the closely related H. ambigua . The former also differs in having pedicels longer (not shorter) than the perianth, in lacking or with only a vestigial gland, flowers which generally pale on drying, pale rather than dark involucres and its occurrence in Jarrah forest rather than other woodland-heath vegetation. See B.Lamont et al., A numeric, geographic and structural analysis of the Hakea falcata group (Proteaceae), Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 94: 433–451 (1987).

Representative specimens

W.A.: Boxwood Hills–Toompup road, 13 km NW of Chillilup Pool turnoff, B.Barnsley 635 (CANB, PERTH); c. 0.75 km W of Karri Bank, Porongorup Ra., A.S.George 14946 (AD, PERTH); Denmark road, 20 km S of junction with Muir Hwy, A.S.George 15086 (CANB, K, PERTH).

Weblinks

Link to FloraBase treatment of this species for WA.

 

A photograph of this species can be seen on the Australian National Botanic Gardens site.

Further illustrations

J.A..Young, Hakeas of Western Australia. A Field and Identification Guide 43 (2006)

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