Photo I. Holliday

Photo I. Holliday

Photo W.R.Barker

Photo I. Holliday


Hakea multilineata Meisn., in J.G.C.Lehmann, Pl. Preiss. 2: 262 (1848)

T: Swan River Colony, W.A., [Watheroo: information in Drummond's hand on one of the specimens in G], s.d. [Feb. 1845], J.Drummond 3: 275; holo: NY; iso: BM, G, G-DC, K p.p., MEL, OXF, ?PERTH (labelled erroneously as M.Koch 975 from Cowcowing).

An image of the NY holotype specimen can be seen on the New York Botanical Garden site.


Erect shrub or small tree, 2.5–5 m tall, non-sprouting. Branchlets ±glabrous at flowering. Leaves flat, linear to narrowly oblanceolate, sometimes slightly falcate, 7–20.5 cm long, 3.5–26 mm wide, finely striated, obtuse to acute, broadly and sharply or bluntly mucronate, glabrous; veins 9–20 (–25), between prominent marginal veins.

Inflorescence with 50–120 flowers; rachis (0.8-)1.2–3 cm long, glabrous; pedicels glabrous. Perianth bright pale to deep pink, glabrous. Pistil (8-)17–22 mm long; gland broadly triangular.

Fruit 1–5 on thickened (but not elongated) rachis, stalked, woody, ±obliquely ovate-elliptic, 1.5–2.6(-3) cm long, 1.2–1.8 cm wide, prominently (rarely obscurely) beaked, shortly apiculate, doubly keeled along ventral suture. Seed obliquely obovate-rhombic, 14–22 mm long, 7–12.5 mm wide; wing extending down one side of body only, often with laciniate margin, black to blackish brown.

Distribution and ecology

Occurs in south-western W.A. from the Wongan Hills area east to the Coolgardie area and south-east towards Kulin and Esperance. Grows in well-drained sites on laterite in ranges (Wongan Hills) or in sand plain mallee-heath in deep loamy sand.

To plot an up to date distribution map based on herbarium collections for this species see Australia's Virtual Herbarium. Localities outside the native range may represent cultivated or naturalised records.

Flowering time

Flowers June–Sept.

Derivation of name

From multi-, Latin for many and lineatus, marked by fine parallel lines, a reference to the 9-25 fine longitudinal veins in the leaf.



Part of Sect. Conogynoides recognised by Bentham (1870) and characterised by a conical pollen presenter, veined leaves, glabrous perianth and fruits without horns.


Within this section 6 species were assigned to the informal Multilineata group by Barker et al. (1999). This group of Hakea species is usually referred to as the 'grass-leaf Hakeas' because they have long linear flat leaves with longitudinal striations. All but one species are floriferous and have red flowers and long pistils, suggesting bird pollination. Fruits are erect. H. minyma has much shorter pistils and cream flowers. 


Species in the group are H. bucculenta, H. francisiana, H. grammatophylla, H. minyma, H. maconochieana and H. multilineata. The monophyly or otherwise of the group has still to be tested.


Geographically-correlated almost clinal variability in H. multilineata requires further study to determine its taxonomic significance. Broad-leaved plants with larger flowers and inflorescences occur in the Wongan Hills and Brookton areas, while narrow-leaved plants with smaller flowers and inflorescences are found in the eastern part of the distribution. Intermediate forms occur in the intervening area (Kondinin–Pingrup–Ravensthorpe). Hakea multilineata is occasionally grown as a garden shrub.

 Note: rachis is thickened to support fruit. Flange on fruit displaces apiculum to such an extent that it appears as if horns may be present in this species.

Representative specimens

W.A.: 115 km NE of Lake King, L.Haegi 1000 (AD, PERTH); 15 km SE of Kulin, R.Hnatiuk 770408 (PERTH); Monks Well Gully, S end of Wongan Hills, K.F.Kenneally 1303 (PERTH).


Link to FloraBase treatment of this species for WA.


For further information and images of this species in the Esperance region of Western Australia see William Archer’s Hakea page in Esperance Wildflowers


Link to the Australian Native Plants Society (Australia) pages on Hakea. This species is covered here with an image, cultivation notes and brief notes.


More photographs of this species can be seen on the Australian National Botanic Gardens site.

Further illustrations

W.R.Elliot & D.L.Jones, Encycl. Austral. Pl. 5: 218 (1990);

J.Young, Hakeas of W. Australia, Botanical District of Avon 18, 72 (1997).

I. Holliday, Hakeas. A Field and Garden Guide 134-5 (2005)

J.A..Young, Hakeas of Western Australia. A Field and Identification Guide 73 (2006)