Photo L.Haegi

Photo I. Holliday

Photo W.R.Barker

Photo I. Holliday

Photo I. Holliday

Photo W.R.Barker

Photo W.R.Barker


Hakea francisiana F.Muell., Fragm. 1: 20 (1858)

T: ad partem occid. sinus Spencer's Gulf, S.A., s.d., G.Francis s.n.; syn: NY.

Hakea coriacea Maconochie, Trans. & Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Australia 97: 132 (1973). T: between Perenjori and Jibberding, W.A., Nov. 1953, C.A.Gardner 12155; holo: PERTH.

?Hakea multilineata var. graminea A.R.Fairall, W. Austral. Nat. Pl. Cult. 155 (1970), nom. nud.

[Hakea multilineata auct. non Meisn.: C.D.F.Meisner, in A.L.P.P. de Candolle, Prodr. 14: 410 (1856), p.p. (only with respect to Drummond 5: Suppl. 18); G.Bentham, Fl. Austral. 5: 518 (1870), p.p. (only with respect to Drummond 5: Suppl. 18)]

[Hakea grammatophylla auct. non (F.Muell.) F.Muell.: F.J.H. von Mueller, Fragm. 6: 214 (1867), p.p. (with respect to Sullivan and Weidenbach specimens)]


Erect shrub or small tree, 2.5–8 m tall, non-sprouting. Branchlets patchily appressed-pubescent to ±glabrous at flowering. Leaves flat, linear, 8–26 cm long, 3–16 mm wide, finely striate, acute, bluntly mucronate, sparsely pubescent to glabrous; veins 5–13 between prominent marginal veins.

Inflorescence with 150–500 flowers; rachis 5–9 cm long, basally tomentose, otherwise glabrous; pedicels glabrous. Perianth pale to deep pink or red to orange-red, sometimes brownish, glabrous. Pistil 16.5–23.5 mm long, coloured as perianth or paler, sometimes cream; gland a thick semi-annular collar.

Fruit 1–12 on enlarged rachis, subsessile or stalked, woody, ±obliquely ovate-elliptic, 1.4–2.6 cm long, 1–1.4 cm wide, prominently beaked, shortly apiculate, not keeled on ventral suture. Seed obliquely obovate-rhombic, 10–22 mm long, 5.5–9 mm wide; wing extending down one side of body only, sometimes laciniate apically, black to blackish brown.

Distribution and ecology

Extends from Geraldton and Wiluna, south to Hyden, W.A., east to the Birksgate Ra. in S.A., and from there south-east to the northern Eyre Peninsula. Always found in sandy soil in dunes or on sand plain, in shrubland or woodland.

To plot an up to date distribution map based on herbarium collections for this species see Australia's Virtual Herbarium. Localities outside the native range may represent cultivated or naturalised records.

Flowering time

Flowers July–Oct.

Derivation of name

Named after the collector of the type of the species, George W. Francis (1800-1865). Francis was the first director of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens from 1855-1865.



Part of Sect. Conogynoides recognised by Bentham (1870) and characterised by a conical pollen presenter, veined leaves, glabrous perianth and fruits without horns.


Within this section 6 species were assigned to the informal Multilineata group by Barker et al. (1999). This group of Hakea species is usually referred to as the 'grass-leaf Hakeas' because they have long linear flat leaves with longitudinal striations. All but one species are floriferous and have red flowers and long pistils, suggesting bird pollination. Fruits are erect. H. minyma has much shorter pistils and cream flowers. 


Species in the group are H. bucculenta, H. francisiana, H. grammatophylla, H. minyma, H. maconochieana and H. multilineata. The monophyly or otherwise of the group has still to be tested.


Hakea coriacea, described from broad-leaved many-veined pink-flowered populations in the far west of the species distribution, has here been placed in synonymy with H. francisiana, from which it cannot be reliably distinguished. Some variation in these characteristics occurs without correlation in other parts of the range of H. francisiana.

Representative specimens

W.A.: 8 km E of Piawaning, 9 Sept. 1959, T.E.H.Aplin s.n. (PERTH); 168 mile post [c. 250 km] on Great Eastern Hwy, E.M.Bennett 693 (PERTH). S.A.: white sand ridge 20 km SW of Yardea HS, Gawler Ra., N.N.Donner 3383 (AD); c. half way along track from Vokes to Serpentine Lakes, G.Jackson 1410 (AD).


Link to FloraBase treatment of this species for WA.


Link to SA eFlora treatment.


Link to the Australian Native Plants Society (Australia) pages on Hakea. This species is covered here with an image, cultivation notes and brief notes about it.


More photographs of this species can be seen on the Australian National Botanic Gardens site.



Further illustrations

A.S.George, Introd. Proteaceae W. Australia pl. 99 (1984);

W.R.Elliot & D.L.Jones, Encycl. Austral. Pl. 5: 198, 207 (1990), as H. coriacea;

J.Young, Hakeas of W. Australia, Botanical District of Avon 15, 46 (1997)

I. Holliday, Hakeas. A Field and Garden Guide 84-7 (2005)

J.A..Young, Hakeas of Western Australia. A Field and Identification Guide 47 (2006)