Electronic Flora of South Australia
Electronic Flora of South Australia
Census of SA Plants, Algae & Fungi
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Electronic Flora of South Australia genus Fact Sheet

Family: Violaceae

Citation: L., Sp.Pl. 933 (1753).

Derivation: Latin viola, the violet.

Synonymy: Not Applicable

Common name: Violets.

Annual, biennial or perennial herbs; glabrous or pubescent; often stoloniferous; leaves alternate, cauline or more or less rosulate, petiolate; lamina suborbicular to lanceolate, serrate, crenate or subentire, the teeth glandular; stipules free or more or less adnate to the petiole, persistent.

Flowers solitary on slender axillary peduncles, peduncles with a pair of bracteoles; sepals entire or denticulate-fimbriate, produced into a basal flattened appendage; anterior petal spurred or saccate; lateral petals often bearded inside; staminal filaments short or absent; anterior 2 anthers with basal appendages; ovary glabrous or pubescent; style usually geniculate, sometimes straight; stigma clavate, lobed or truncate.

Fruit a globose to more or less cylindrical capsule, glabrous or pubescent; valves 3, boat-shaped; seeds 2-many, smooth or rugulose, sometimes with a single ridge.

Distribution:  Approximately 450 species, chiefly in temperate regions of the world. In the Flora of Australia Adams recognised 8 species of which 3 are endemic and 3 introduced.

Biology: No text

Taxonomic notes: 2 sections, Viola and Erpetion, are represented in S.Aust. In both the stipules are small, entire or fimbriate, brownish-translucent, rarely green, never leaf-like. The anterior petal is narrow, ovate to linear-oblong. In section Viola the anterior petal is spurred. In section Erpetion the anterior petal is shallowly saccate but not spurred.

Key to Species:
1. Stolons absent; leaves lanceolate or oblong
V. betonicifolia 1.
1. Stolons present; leaves reniform, ovate, ovate-rhomboid, not lanceolate or oblong
2. Leaves deeply caudate at the base, lamina 2-5 cm long; anterior petal prominently spurred; style hooked at the tip
V. odorata 2.
2. Leaves not deeply caudate at the base, lamina 0.5-2 cm long; anterior petal weakly pouched, not spurred; style straight at the tip
3. Leaves reniform to suborbicular, often broader than long; petals violet and white
V. hederacea 4.
3. Leaves ovate to ovate-rhomboid, as wide as long or longer; petals concolorous, blue-violet or cream
4. Peduncles exceeding the leaves; petals a pale to dark blue-violet, twice the length of the sepals
V. sieberiana 5.
4. Peduncles as long as or scarcely exceeding the leaves; petals cream-coloured, scarcely exceeding the sepals
V. cleistogamoides 3.

Author: Not yet available

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