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Australian genera of Solanaceae and their placement.

 

This placement is now out of date with respect to the most recent classifications of the family (see for example the revised classification of Olmstead et al., 2008) but may be useful in placing material within a genus. Genera in square brackets are only known in cultivation in Australia

 

Subfamily Cestroideae

Seeds not flattened  

Tribe Cestreae

Woody shrubs, rarely small trees. Pedicels articulated. Corolla tubular with a short fold on upper part of tube, actinomorphic. Stamens 5, all fertile, free, included; filaments longer than anthers, geniculate at proximal end; anthers dorsifixed, small, circular; thecae free in basal third, dehiscing introrsely. Ovary on prominent disc. Fruit a berry or capsule. Seeds prismatic or ovoid; embryo straight, or slightly curved at apex.

Cestrum

 

Tribe Salpiglossideae

Mainly herbs, rarely shrubs. Pedicels not articulate. Corolla infundibular, bilabiate, zygomorphic; aestivation imbricate, rarely valvate. Stamens 4 (rarely 2), if androecium tetramerous then usually didynamous; upper stamens may vary in size or have unequal thecae (many complex modifications of stamens, staminodes and stigmas), if androecium dimerous then 3 staminodes present. Fruit a capsule. Seeds prismatic; embryo straight, erect or slightly bent.

Browallia

 

Tribe Nicotianeae

Herbs, rarely shrubs. Pedicels not articulated. Corolla infundibular or campanulate, actinomorphic or almost so; aestivation contorted, the limb plicate. Stamens 5, rarely 2 or 4; anthers dorsifixed or ventrifixed; thecae rarely confluent. Fruit a capsule. Embryo straight or almost so.

Petunia

Nierembergia

[Brunfelsia]

Nicotiana & Symonanthus have a closer relationship with Anthocercideaea than the other genera here which would now be assigned to the Petunieae

 

Tribe Anthocercideae (sometimes raised to subfamily, as in Hunzicker 2001, because of its distinctive aestivation).

Woody shrubs. Calyx scarcely enlarged in fruit. Corolla actinomorphic or nearly so, 5–lobed, the tube shortly funnel-shaped and striated; margins of each lobe inrolled, one overlapping the other. Stamens 5, or 4 with a staminode, inserted near base of corolla-tube; anthers with extrorse dehiscence. Fruit a berry or capsule. Seeds sub-reniform with reticulate testa; embryo slightly curved.

Anthocercis

Anthotroche

Crenidium

Cyphanthera

Duboisia

Grammosolen

Symonanthus (Molecular study indicates that this does not belong here but may be closer to Nicotiana (see Garcia & Olmstead 2003; Olmstead et al., 2008) which itself is closer to Anthocercideae than previously thought.

 

Subfamily Solanoideae

Seeds flattened

 

Tribe Nicandreae

Herbs. Calyx lobes auriculate. Corolla separated from calyx by rather long internode, broadly campanulate, actinomorphic; aestivation imbricate, cochlear or quincuncial. Stamens 5; filaments geniculate at attachment to corolla; anthers basifixed, dehiscing by longitudinal slits, the thecae adnate except in lower quarter. Ovary 4-5-locular; disc present. Fruit a berry enclosed in papery enlarged calyx; stone-cells present; embryo strongly curved.

Nicandra

 

Tribe Hyoscyameae

Herbs. Corolla infundibular-campanulate, slightly zygomorphic; aestivation imbricate or quincuncial. Stamens 5; anthers longitudinally dehiscent. Ovary bilocular. Fruit a capsule within enlarged calyx, dehiscing by a circumscissile operculum; embryo coiled or spiral.

 Hyoscyamus

 

Tribe Datureae

Herbs or soft-wooded shrubs. Calyx tubular, spathaceous, circumscissile at base in fruit. Corolla infundibular, actinomorphic; aestivation conduplicate-contorted, the limb plicate. Stamens 5; anthers basifixed, dehiscing by longitudinal slits, the thecae adnate. Ovary bilocular or incompletely 4-locular. Fruit a 2-4-valved spiny capsule; embryo strongly curved.  [Flowers large, tubular, erect.]

Datura (Thorn-apples)

Brugmansia

 

Tribe Lycieae

Woody shrubs, often spiny. Corolla infundibular, actinomorphic; aestivation imbricate, cochlear or quincuncial. Stamens 5, all fertile; anthers dorsifixed; anther thecae separated from each other for the lower third or more, dehiscing by longitudinal slits. Gynoecium bilocular. Fruit a berry or drupe. Embryo strongly curved or spiral; cotyledons incumbent.

Lycium (Box-thorns)

 

Tribe Solaneae

Herbs, shrubs, rarely small trees. Pedicels articulate. Corolla rotate, actinomorphic, rarely sub-zygomorphic; aestivation valvate, induplicate or plicate, never conduplicate contorted. Stamens 5; filaments attached to base of corolla-tube, shorter than the anthers; anthers basifixed, dehiscent mostly by apical pores, rarely by short longitudinal slits; thecae adnate from base to apex. Ovary bilocular; disc absent. Fruit a berry, rarely sub-capsular or indehiscent; stone-cells present or absent; embryo strongly curved.

Solanum (including Lycopersicon and Cyphomandra)

Lycianthes

Withania

Capsicum

Physalis

 

Tribe Jaboroseae

Herbs or shrubs, sometimes trailing. Aestivation valvate, induplicate, plicate or conduplicate but not overlapping. Stamens 5, all fertile; filaments generally inserted near centre of anthers on dorsal face and leaning towards centre of flower. Fruit a berry; seed discoid; embryo strongly curved. [Flowers small, white, pendulous, actinomorphic].

Salpichroa

 

Tribe Solandreae

Woody climbing shrubs. Corolla large, slightly zygomorphic; aestivation imbricate. Stamens 5, equal; filaments declinate; anthers basifixed, longitudinally dehiscent. Ovary 4-locular; disc annular. Fruit a berry; seed discoidal; embryo coiled.  [Flowers exceedingly large, yellow with purple markings,]

 Solandra

 

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