Australian genera of Solanaceae and their placement.
This placement is now out of date with respect to the most recent classifications of the family (see for example the revised classification of Olmstead et al., 2008) but may be useful in placing material within a genus. Genera in square brackets are only known in cultivation in Australia
Seeds not flattened
Woody shrubs, rarely small trees. Pedicels articulated. Corolla tubular with a short fold on upper part of tube, actinomorphic. Stamens 5, all fertile, free, included; filaments longer than anthers, geniculate at proximal end; anthers dorsifixed, small, circular; thecae free in basal third, dehiscing introrsely. Ovary on prominent disc. Fruit a berry or capsule. Seeds prismatic or ovoid; embryo straight, or slightly curved at apex.
Mainly herbs, rarely shrubs. Pedicels not articulate. Corolla infundibular, bilabiate, zygomorphic; aestivation imbricate, rarely valvate. Stamens 4 (rarely 2), if androecium tetramerous then usually didynamous; upper stamens may vary in size or have unequal thecae (many complex modifications of stamens, staminodes and stigmas), if androecium dimerous then 3 staminodes present. Fruit a capsule. Seeds prismatic; embryo straight, erect or slightly bent.
Herbs, rarely shrubs. Pedicels not articulated. Corolla infundibular or campanulate, actinomorphic or almost so; aestivation contorted, the limb plicate. Stamens 5, rarely 2 or 4; anthers dorsifixed or ventrifixed; thecae rarely confluent. Fruit a capsule. Embryo straight or almost so.
Nicotiana & Symonanthus have a closer relationship with Anthocercideaea than the other genera here which would now be assigned to the Petunieae
Woody shrubs. Calyx scarcely enlarged in fruit. Corolla actinomorphic or nearly so, 5lobed, the tube shortly funnel-shaped and striated; margins of each lobe inrolled, one overlapping the other. Stamens 5, or 4 with a staminode, inserted near base of corolla-tube; anthers with extrorse dehiscence. Fruit a berry or capsule. Seeds sub-reniform with reticulate testa; embryo slightly curved.
Symonanthus (Molecular study indicates that this does not belong here but may be closer to Nicotiana (see Garcia & Olmstead 2003; Olmstead et al., 2008) which itself is closer to Anthocercideae than previously thought.
Herbs. Calyx lobes auriculate. Corolla separated from calyx by rather long internode, broadly campanulate, actinomorphic; aestivation imbricate, cochlear or quincuncial. Stamens 5; filaments geniculate at attachment to corolla; anthers basifixed, dehiscing by longitudinal slits, the thecae adnate except in lower quarter. Ovary 4-5-locular; disc present. Fruit a berry enclosed in papery enlarged calyx; stone-cells present; embryo strongly curved.
Herbs. Corolla infundibular-campanulate, slightly zygomorphic; aestivation imbricate or quincuncial. Stamens 5; anthers longitudinally dehiscent. Ovary bilocular. Fruit a capsule within enlarged calyx, dehiscing by a circumscissile operculum; embryo coiled or spiral.
Herbs or soft-wooded shrubs. Calyx tubular, spathaceous, circumscissile at base in fruit. Corolla infundibular, actinomorphic; aestivation conduplicate-contorted, the limb plicate. Stamens 5; anthers basifixed, dehiscing by longitudinal slits, the thecae adnate. Ovary bilocular or incompletely 4-locular. Fruit a 2-4-valved spiny capsule; embryo strongly curved. [Flowers large, tubular, erect.]
Woody shrubs, often spiny. Corolla infundibular, actinomorphic; aestivation imbricate, cochlear or quincuncial. Stamens 5, all fertile; anthers dorsifixed; anther thecae separated from each other for the lower third or more, dehiscing by longitudinal slits. Gynoecium bilocular. Fruit a berry or drupe. Embryo strongly curved or spiral; cotyledons incumbent.
Herbs, shrubs, rarely small trees. Pedicels articulate. Corolla rotate, actinomorphic, rarely sub-zygomorphic; aestivation valvate, induplicate or plicate, never conduplicate contorted. Stamens 5; filaments attached to base of corolla-tube, shorter than the anthers; anthers basifixed, dehiscent mostly by apical pores, rarely by short longitudinal slits; thecae adnate from base to apex. Ovary bilocular; disc absent. Fruit a berry, rarely sub-capsular or indehiscent; stone-cells present or absent; embryo strongly curved.
Solanum (including Lycopersicon and Cyphomandra)
Herbs or shrubs, sometimes trailing. Aestivation valvate, induplicate, plicate or conduplicate but not overlapping. Stamens 5, all fertile; filaments generally inserted near centre of anthers on dorsal face and leaning towards centre of flower. Fruit a berry; seed discoid; embryo strongly curved. [Flowers small, white, pendulous, actinomorphic].
Woody climbing shrubs. Corolla large, slightly zygomorphic; aestivation imbricate. Stamens 5, equal; filaments declinate; anthers basifixed, longitudinally dehiscent. Ovary 4-locular; disc annular. Fruit a berry; seed discoidal; embryo coiled. [Flowers exceedingly large, yellow with purple markings,]
State Herbarium of South Australia