Flowers and leaves. Photo I. Holliday

Flowers and leaves.  Photo   W.R.Barker

Flowers and leaves.  Photo   W.R.Barker

Young, horned fruit.  Photo W.R.Barker


Hakea strumosa Meisn., in A.L.P.P. de Candolle, Prodr. 14: 402 (1856)

T: Swan R., W.A., J.Drummond 4: 289; syn: BM, G, K, NY, OXF, P. An image of the NY type specimen can be seen on the New York Botanical Garden site under H. recurva.

[Hakea leucoptera auct. non R.Br.; C.D.F.Meisner, Hooker's J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 4: 207 (1852); C.D.F.Meisner, in A.L.P.P. de Candolle, Prodr. 14: 396 (1856), both references with respect to Drummond V, Suppl. n. 13.]


Compact or diffuse shrub, 0.5–1 m tall. Branchlets and young leaves glabrous or appressed-sericeous, with hairs ferruginous. Leaves simple, 2.5–11 cm long, 1.3–1.8 mm wide, sometimes granular papillose; mucro 1–4.8 mm long.

Inflorescence axillary with 4 (rarely 6–10) flowers; involucre 2–2.5 mm long; rachis 0.7–2 mm long, hirsute; pedicels 2–3.5 mm long, glabrous; buds curved. Perianth 3–4.2 mm long, yellow and red, glabrous, glaucous. Pistil 6.5–8 mm long; pollen presenter oblique disc.

Fruit obliquely obovate, 3.5–5 cm long, 1.9–3.4 cm wide, rugose, obliquely beaked, obscurely apiculate; horns 2 mm long. Seed 20–34 mm long; wing encircling seed body, off-white with black lines.

Distribution and ecology

Occurs in the Tammin to Merredin area of south-western W.A., through to Bremer Bay and Esperance area. Found in sand, often over laterite, in low heath.

To plot an up to date distribution map based on herbarium collections for this species see Australia's Virtual Herbarium. Localities outside the native range may represent cultivated or naturalised records.

Flowering time

Flowers Sept.–Nov.

Derivation of name

From strumosus, Latin for provided with a swelling, a reference to the thick stalk supporting the fruit.



Part of Section Hakea of Bentham (as Euhakea) and characterised by a non-conical pollen presenter, leaves without obvious venation, perianths with or without hairs and fruits with or without horns. Barker et al. (1999) recognised a number of informal morphological groups within the section.

H. strumosa is part of the Strumosa group, a group close to the Sericea and Nodosa groups and held together by the sharing of simple terete leaves, terminal or axillary inflorescences (if the latter these resprouting in subsequent seasons), glabrous pedicel and perianth and woody, smooth or verrucose, fruits with horns. Other species in the group include H. bicornata, H. circumalata, H. commutata, H. cycloptera, H. newbeyana,  H. preissii and H. vittata.


Although the flowers are much smaller, the perianth parts of H. strumosa splay open in a similar fashion to those of H. platysperma , exposing the nectar source.

Groom & Lamont (1996b) record this species as an epicormic resprouter.

Representative specimens

W.A.: near Narembeen, 72 km S of Merredin, W.E.Blackall s.n. (PERTH); Swamp Rd, N of Bremer Bay, J.M.Laws s.n. (PERTH); 26.5 km N of Ravensthorpe, F.Lullfitz 5514 (PERTH); Charles Gardner Flora Reserve, South Tammin, P.Roberts 390 (PERTH).


Link to FloraBase treatment of this species for WA.

More photographs of this species can be seen on the Australian National Botanic Gardens site.

Further illustrations

J.Young, Hakeas of W. Australia, Botanical District of Avon 23, 100 (1997)

I. Holliday, Hakeas. A Field and Garden Guide 196-7 (2005)

J.A..Young, Hakeas of Western Australia. A Field and Identification Guide 110 (2006)