Leaves, flowers and fruit. Photo   W.R.Barker

Closed fruits. Photo   W.R.Barker

Open fruit. Photo   W.R.Barker


Hakea stenophylla A.Cunn. ex R.Br., Suppl. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 30 (1830) subsp. stenophylla

T: Bay of Rest, [W.A.], 16 Feb. 1818, A.Cunningham 109; lecto: BM, fide R.M.Barker, Nuytsia 12: 5 (1998); isolecto: B, K.


Spreading shrub, 0.5-2(-5) m high, probably lignotuberous; bark dark, ±smooth. Branchlets densely appressed-pubescent; hairs predominantly white, some ferruginous, quickly glabrescent. Leaves flat, linear to narrowly obovate, 6–12 cm long, 1–4 mm wide, initially densely appressed ferruginous-pubescent, quickly glabrescent; apex abruptly short-acuminate and uncinate.

Peduncle simple or branched, 2–9 mm long, densely white-pubescent; rachis 1–1.5 mm long, white-pubescent. Flowers 10–16, white; pedicels 4–6 mm long, densely white appressed-pubescent. Perianth 2.5-4 mm long, white-pubescent, recurved to claw. Pistil 7–13 mm long; style recurved, rarely looped; pollen presenter oblique.

Fruit obliquely obovate or elliptic, 3–4.5 cm long, 2–2.6 cm wide, abruptly attenuate into an erect apiculum or an apiculum recurved away from the red-brown wood zone (except Phillips 28); valve with red-brown wood zone 1.5–2.5 mm wide and pale wood zone 3-6 mm wide; beak black. Seed 17–29 mm long, 9.5–16 mm wide, covering c. three quarters of valve surface; wing entirely down one side of seed body, partly or fully down other.

Distribution and ecology

Occurs from Cape Ra. to Minilya R. area of W.A., possibly also in the Murchison R area, in red sand hills or coastal sand dunes, usually with spinifex.

To plot an up to date distribution map based on herbarium collections for this species see Australia's Virtual Herbarium. Localities outside the native range may represent cultivated or naturalised records.

Flowering time

Flowers June–July.

Derivation of name

From stenos, Greek for narrow and phyllos, Greek for leaf, a reference to the narrow leaves of this species.


How the infraspecific taxa differ

At present ssp. stenophylla and ssp. notialis can only be definitely distinguished with fruiting material, but further collections and field observations should confirm both habit and habitat differences, with subsp. stenophylla likely to be lignotuberous.


subsp. notialis

ssp. stenophylla

Fruiting valve: red-brown wood layer width

2.5-4 mm

1.5-2.5 mm

Fruiting valve: pale wood width

8-10 mm

3-6 mm

Fruiting valve: seed coverage of surface

c. 1/2

c. 3/4


Spreading shrub, up to 2 m high

Erect shrub or small tree, to 4 m high





Part of the Pedunculata Group of Barker et al. (1999), this group of 4 species (H. arborescens, H. pedunculata, H. persiehana and H. stenophylla) is held together morphologically by the possession of a bare peduncle below the rachis. They also have obscurely-veined leaves, oblique or conical pollen presenters, hairy perianths and woody fruits without horns.


While Bentham referred them to the Grevilleoides, presumably because they may sometimes have a corky bark, it seems likely that these will eventually prove to be an artificial group, with H. arborescens and H. persiehana (both with conical pollen presenters) being closely related but probably not close to H. pedunculata and H. stenophylla. Molecular studies by Mast (unpubl.) have already shown the former but the latter two species were not included in the study.    



Representative specimens

W.A.: Exmouth to Minilya Hwy, c. 99.5 km by road N of Minilya roadhouse, c. 15.1 km by road N of turn-off to Coral Bay, W.R.Barker 7402 (AD); 32 km S of Minilya R, North West Coastal Hwy, A.S.George 1460 (PERTH); Cape Range Natl Park; Oil Well No. 2, at W end of Charles Knife Rd, c. 11 km by road WNW of Exmouth–Carnarvon road, E.N.S.Jackson 3065 (AD); 15 km E of Onslow, A.A.Mitchell 76/154 (PERTH); Murchison Bridge, 380 mile post [c. 608 km], North West Coastal Hwy, G.Phillips 28 (CANB, DNA, MEL, PERTH).


Link to FloraBase treatment of this species for WA.


Further illustrations

I. Holliday, Hakeas. A Field and Garden Guide 194-5 (2005)

J.A..Young, Hakeas of Western Australia. A Field and Identification Guide 109 (2006).