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Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet

Stictosiphonia intricata (Bory) Silva in Silva et al. 1996: 552.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Family Rhodomelaceae – Tribe Bostrychieae


Scytonema intricatum Bory 1828: 225.

Bostrychia intricata (Bory) Montagne 1852: 317. J. Agardh 1863: 866. Davey & Woelkerling 1980: 58. De Toni 1903: 1166. Kützing 1865: 9, pl. 23d-f. May 1965: 377.

Bostrychia hookeri Harvey in Hooker & Harvey 1845a: 269. J. Agardh 1863: 857; 1897: 73. De Toni 1903: 1148. Falkenberg 1901: 509, pl. 11 figs 19–24. Harvey 1849a: 69. Kützing 1849: 840; 1865: 8, pl. 21a-c. Millar & Kraft 1993: 59.

Stictosiphonia hookeri (Harvey) Harvey in Hooker 1847: 483, pl. 186 fig. II. Adams 1994: 309. King & Puttock 1989: 44, figs 2a, 17, 18a, b.

Bostrychia mixta Hooker & Harvey 1845a: 270; 1845b: 536. J. Agardh 1863: 858; 1897: 72. De Toni 1903: 1150. Falkenberg 1901: 511. Guiler 1952: 104. Harvey 1849a: 70; 1859b: 298; 1860: pl. 176A; 1863: pl. 176A, synop.: xix. Kützing 1849: 840; 1865: 8, pl. 20d-f. Lucas 1909: 47; 1929a: 23. Shepherd & Womersley 1981: 368. Sonder 1853: 703; 1880: 34. Tate 1882a: 23. Womersley 1950: 186.

Amphibia mixta (Hooker & Harvey) Kuntze 1891: 881.

Thallus (Fig. 159A) forming dense turfs 5–15 mm high, purple to red-brown, with prostrate and erect indeterminate axes 5–10 (–30) mm long, bearing simple or subdichotomous determinate laterals. Attachment by peripherohaptera (Fig. 159B) on the prostrate axes, usually opposite erect axes; epilithic or epiphytic on mangroves, upper eulittoral. Structure. Apices straight or curved, apical cells dome-shaped, 30–40 µm in diameter (including a very thick wall). Pericentral cells 5–7 (–8), each dividing to (3–) 4–5 tiers (Fig. 159C) per axial cell, ecorticate apart from odd corticating cells on older axes. Prostrate indeterminate axes 60–150 µm in diameter, axial cells 90–200 µm long, erect indeterminate axes 30–120 µm in diameter, bearing determinate laterals 2–3 axial cells apart, tapering, lower segments 60–90 µm in diameter. Cells uninucleate; rhodoplasts discoid.

Reproduction: Gametophytes dioecious, rare. Procarps on 3–6 consecutive segments of determinate laterals, with 1 (–2) per axial cell, the supporting cell with a sterile group of 2–3 cells before fertilization and the adjacent sterile pericentral with a group of 3–4 cells; carpogonial branch 4 cells long (King & Puttock 1989, fig. 18a). Carposporophyte with a short, branched, gonimoblast and ovoid to clavate terminal carposporangia 30–45 µm in diameter. Cystocarps (Fig. 159D) subapical on determinate laterals, ovoid to subspherical, 400–550 µm in diameter; pericarp ostiolate, with 8 longitudinal filaments, each cell with 2 (–3) pericentral cells and becoming 2–3 cells thick, outer cells irregular. Spermatangial organs including 6–9 axial cells of determinate laterals, 60–75 µm in diameter and 400–1000 µm long, with an outer layer of spermatangia.

Stichidia (Fig. 159E) subapical or intercalary on determinate laterals, 150–250 µm in diameter, (300–) 600–1200 µm and 4–10 (–22) axial cells long, with 4–5 pericentral cells and tetrasporangia per whorl (Fig. 159F); tetrasporangia 50–80 µm in diameter, with 2 cover cells dividing 2 (–3) times and forming odd cortical cells.

Lectotype from Falkland Is; in PC.

Selected specimens: Point Sinclair, S. Aust., shaded under overhang (Parsons, 3.xi.1968; AD, A32937). Elliston, S. Aust., mid eulittoral, shaded (Womersley, 15.i.1951; AD, A14949). Ethel Bay, Yorke Pen., S. Aust., upper eulittoral, shaded (Womersley, 13.iv.1963; AD, A26341). Pennington Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., upper eulittoral, shaded (Womersley, 29.viii.1948; A9459 and 6.i.1949; AD, A10791). Point Nepean, Vic., lower eulittoral (Brown, 22.vii.1981; AD, A59556). Crawfish Rock, Westernport Bay, Vic., mid eulittoral, shaded (Womersley, 29.viii.1971; AD, A39448). Mersey Bluff, Devonport, Tas., mid eulittoral (Womersley, 29.x.1994; AD, A63856-"Marine Algae of southern Australia" No. 380, as S. hookeri). Long Bay, Port Arthur, Tas., mid to lower eulittoral (Gribb 115.10, 22.i.1951; AD, A16207).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: Widespread in temperate waters of the Southern Hemisphere.

In Australia, from Point Sinclair, S. Aust., to SE Tas., and Manly, N.S.W. (see King & Puttock 1989, p. 46).

Taxonomic notes: This species, with synonymy and references, is discussed in detail by King & Puttock, (1989, p. 44) as S. hookeri, and the nomenclature clarified by Silva et al. (1996, p. 552).


ADAMS, N.M. (1994). Seaweeds of New Zealand. (Cant. Univ. Press: Christchurch.)

AGARDH, J.G. (1863). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 2, Part 3, pp. 787–1291. (Gleerup: Lund.)

AGARDH, J.G. (1897). Analecta Algologica. Cont. IV. Acta Univ. lund. 33, 1–106, Plates 1, 2.

BORY DE ST-VINCENT, J.B. (1828). In Duperrey, L.I., Voyage autour du monde, exécuté par ordre du Roi, sur la corvette de Sa Majesté, la Coquille, pendant les années 1822, 1823, 1824 et 1825. Botanique, Cryptogamie, pp. 1–300, Plates 1–39. (Bertrand: Paris.)

DAVEY, A. & WOELKERLING, W.J. (1980). Studies on Australian mangrove algae. I. Victorian communities: Composition and geographic distribution. Proc. R. Soc. Vict. 91, 53–66.

DE TONI, G.B. (1903). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 4. Florideae. Sect. 3. pp. 775–1521 + 1523–1525. (Padua.)

FALKENBERG, P. (1901). Die Rhodomelaceen des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-abschnitte. Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel. Monogr. 26. (Friedländer: Berlin.)

GUILER, E.R. (1952). The marine algae of Tasmania. Checklist with localities. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasmania 86, 71–106.

HARVEY, W.H. (1849a). Nereis Australis, pp. 65–124, Plates 26–50. (Reeve: London.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1859b). Algae. In Hooker, J.D., The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage. III. Flora Tasmaniae. Vol. II, pp. 282–343, Plates 185–196. (Reeve: London.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1860). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 3, Plates 121–180. (Reeve: London.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1863). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 5, Plates 241–300, synop., pp. i-lxxiii. (Reeve: London.)

HOOKER, J.D. & HARVEY, W.H. (1845a). Algae Antarcticae. Lund. J. But. 4, 249–276.

HOOKER, J.D. & HARVEY, W.H. (1845b). Algae Novae Zelandiae. Lund. J. Bot. 4, 521–551.

HOOKER, J.D. (1847). The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage. I. Flora Antarctica. Part II, Algae, pp. 454–502, Plates 165–194. (Reeve: London.)

KÜTZING, F.T. (1849). Species Algarum. (Leipzig.)

KÜTZING, F.T. (1865). Tabulae Phycologicae. Vol. 15. (Nordhausen.)

KING, R.J. & PUTTOCK, C.F. (1989). Morphology and taxonomy of Bostrychia and Stictosiphonia (Rhodomelaceae / Rhodophyta). Aust. Syst. Bot. 2, 1–73.

KUNTZE, O. (1891). Revisio generum Plantarum. Part II. 4. Algae, pp. 877–930. (Leipzig.)

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1909). Revised list of the Fucoideae and Florideae of Australia. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 34, 9–60.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1929a). The marine algae of Tasmania. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasm. 1928, 6–27.

MAY, V. (1965). A census and key to the species of Rhodophyceae (red algae) recorded from Australia. Contr. N.S. W. Natl Herb. 3, 349–429.

MILLAR, A.J.K. & KRAFT, G.T. (1993). Catalogue of marine and freshwater Red Algae (Rhodophyta) of New South Wales, including Lord Howe Island, South-western Pacific. Aust. Syst. Bot. 6, 1–90.

MONTAGNE, C. (1852). Diagnoses phycologicae ... Ann. Sci. Nat., (Bat.) Sér. 3, 18, 302–319.

SHEPHERD, S.A. & WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1981). The algal and seagrass ecology of Waterloo Bay, South Australia. Aquat. Bot. 11, 305–371.

SILVA, P.C., BASSON, P.W. & MOE, R.L. (1996). Catalogue of the Benthic Marine Algae of the Indian Ocean. (Univ. California Press: Berkeley.)

SONDER, O.W. (1853). Plantae Muellerianae. Algae. Linnaea 25, 657–709.

SONDER, O.W. (1880). In Mueller, F., Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae. Supplementum ad volumen undecinum: Algae Australianae hactenus cognitae, pp. 1–42, 105–107. (Melbourne.)

TATE, R. (1882a). A list of the charas, mosses, liverworts, lichens, fungs, and algals of extratropical South Australia. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 4, 5–24.

WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1950). The marine algae of Kangaroo Island. III. List of Species 1. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 73, 137–197.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIID complete list of references.

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (24 February, 2003)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIID. Ceramiales – Delesseriaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodomelaceae
Reproduced with permission from The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIID 2003, by H.B.S. Womersley. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia.

Illustration in Womersley Part IIIA, 2003: FIG. 159.

Figure 159 image

Figure 159   enlarge

Fig. 159. Stictosiphonia intricata (A, AD, A39448; B–E, AD, A9459; F, AD, A59556). A. Habit. B. Prostrate axis with peripherohaptera. C. Longitudinal view of axis with 4 tiers of divided pericentral cells. D. Erect filaments with cystocarps. E. Indeterminate axis with stichidia on determinate laterals. F. Stichidia with 4-5 tetrasporangia per whorl.

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