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Schizoseris hymenena (Zanardini) Womersley, comb. nov.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Family Delesseriaceae


Nitophyllum hymenena Zanardini 1874: 497. J. Agardh 1876: 472. De Toni 1900: 664. Guiler 1952: 102. Lucas 1909: 36; 1926: 601, pl. 41 fig. 4. Sonder 1880: 23.

Nitophyllum gattyanum J. Agardh 1876: 454; 1897: 41; 1898: 59. De Toni 1900: 647. Lucas 1909: 35; 1926: 601, pl. 40 fig. 2, pl. 41 figs 1–3; 1929a: 19. Sonder 1880: 23. Tisdall 1898: 509. Wilson 1892: 174.

Myriogramme gattyana (J. Agardh) Kylin 1924: 60; 1929: 9, pl. 5 fig. 12. Guiler 1952: 102. May 1965: 400.

Nitophyllum multinerve sensu Harvey 1859b: 313. Sonder 1880: 105. [NON Hooker & Harvey 1845a: 255 from Cape Horn = Schizoseris dichotoma (Hooker & Harvey) Kylin.]

Thallus (Fig. 52A) medium red-brown, 10–20 cm high, foliose, with one to several fronds from short, slender stipes 2–10 mm long, fronds with entire but strongly undulate to convolute margins, veins (Fig. 52A, B) macroscopic, prominent, subdichotomous and extending throughout the fronds, basally 0.5–1.5 mm broad, decreasing gradually to 100–200 µm broad near the frond apex; midribs and microscopic veins absent. Holdfast discoid, possibly stoloniferous; epiphytic. Structure. Growth marginal without apical cells, marginal cells isodiametric to elongate 8–12 µm long, enlarging to angular mature blade cells, 30–50 µm across and L/D 1–2; young veins 1–3 cells broad, cells L/D 2–4, older veins (Fig. 52B) 6–10 cells broad, basally many cells broad. Blades monostromatic and 40–50 µm thick, polystromatic at veins and reproductive structures. Cells multinucleate; rhodoplasts discoid (?).

Reproduction: Gametophytes dioecious. Procarps scattered, probably with sterile groups and a 4-celled carpogonial branch. Carposporophytes with a large, laterally ovoid, fusion cell, and a moderately branched gonimoblast with terminal or short chains of ovoid to clavate carposporangia 30–40 µm in diameter. Cystocarps hemispherical, 1–1.5 mm across, pericarp ostiolate, 4–6 cells thick. Spermatangial sori (Fig. 52C) scattered, small and irregular in shape, 50–200 µm across, with the primary cells cutting off cortical initials (Fig. 52D) which produce elongate spermatangia in blocks corresponding to the primary cells.

Tetrasporangial sori scattered, ovate to elongate, 200–1000 µm across, tetrasporangia subspherical, 45–65 µm in diameter.

Type from Hobart, Tas. (in Herb Zanardini, V; "paratype" labelled "River Derwent, H. Town, near the Butts. Sam Hannaford").

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: SE Tasmania.

Taxonomic notes: Selected Specimens: Cloudy Lagoon, SE Tas., 4–5 m deep (Edgar, 30.vi.1995: AD, A64398). Blackmans Bay (S of Hobart), Tas., drift (Tyler, 17.x.1973; AD, A44236). Adventure Bay, Bruny I., Tas. (Perrin, 16–20.ix.1948; AD, A49610).

The type specimens of Nitophyllum hymenena Zanardini (1874, p. 497) and N. gattyanum J. Agardh (1876, p. 454) are both from the Derwent Estuary, Tasmania, and are very similar, marked by dichotomising macroscopic vein systems showing they are best referred to Schizoseris, though reproductive details need further investigation.

Kylin (1929, p. 9), followed by Adams (1994, p. 286), recorded Myriogramme gattyana from New Zealand, but this record probably applies to S. dichotoma (syn. M multinervis).

Schizoseris hymenena is closely related to the New Zealand S. dichotoma (Hooker & Harvey) Kylin (1924, p. 68) and detailed comparisons are needed. S. dichotoma appears to differ in having a more dichotomous thallus and stronger vein system.


ADAMS, N.M. (1994). Seaweeds of New Zealand. (Cant. Univ. Press: Christchurch.)

AGARDH, J.G. (1876). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 3, Part 1 - Epicrisis systematis Floridearum, pp. i-vii, 1–724. (Weigel: Leipzig.)

AGARDH, J.G. (1897). Analecta Algologica. Cont. IV. Acta Univ. lund. 33, 1–106, Plates 1, 2.

AGARDH, J.G. (1898). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 3, Part 3 - De dispositione Delesseriearum. (Gleerup: Lund.)

DE TONI, G.B. (1900). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 4. Florideae. Sect. 2. pp. 387–776. (Padua.)

GUILER, E.R. (1952). The marine algae of Tasmania. Checklist with localities. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasmania 86, 71–106.

HARVEY, W.H. (1859b). Algae. In Hooker, J.D., The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage. III. Flora Tasmaniae. Vol. II, pp. 282–343, Plates 185–196. (Reeve: London.)

KYLIN, H. (1924). Studien über die Delesseriaceen. Lunds Univ. Årsskr. N.F. Avd. 2, 20(6), 1–111.

KYLIN, H. (1929). Die Delesseriaceen Neu-seelands. Lunds Univ. Årsskr. N.F. Avd. 2, 25(2), 1–15, Plates 1–12.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1909). Revised list of the Fucoideae and Florideae of Australia. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 34, 9–60.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1926). Notes on Australian marine algae. III. The Australian species of the genus Nitophyllum. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 51, 594–607, Plates 37–45.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1929a). The marine algae of Tasmania. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasm. 1928, 6–27.

MAY, V. (1965). A census and key to the species of Rhodophyceae (red algae) recorded from Australia. Contr. N.S. W. Natl Herb. 3, 349–429.

SONDER, O.W. (1880). In Mueller, F., Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae. Supplementum ad volumen undecinum: Algae Australianae hactenus cognitae, pp. 1–42, 105–107. (Melbourne.)

TISDALL, H.T. (1898). The algae of Victoria. Rep. 7th Meet. Aust. Ass. Adv. Sci., Sydney, 1898, pp. 493–516.

WILSON, J.B. (1892). Catalogue of algae collected at or near Port Phillip Heads and Western Port. Proc. R. Soc. Viet. 4, 157–190.

ZANARDINI, J. (1874). Phyceae Australicae novae vel minus cognitae. Flora 57, 486–490, 497–505.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIID complete list of references.

Author: H. B. S. Womersley

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (24 February, 2003)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIID. Ceramiales – Delesseriaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodomelaceae
Reproduced with permission from The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIID 2003, by H.B.S. Womersley. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia.

Illustration in Womersley Part IIIA, 2003: FIG. 52.

Figure 52 image

Figure 52   enlarge

Fig. 52. Schizoseris hvmenena (A, AD, A49610; B–D, AD, A64398). A. Habit. B. Blade showing cell arrangement and a microscopic vein (below). C. Blade with spermatangial sori. D. Transverse section of a spermatangial sorus.

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