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Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet

Protokuetzingia australasica (Montagne) Falkenberg in Schmitz & Falkenberg 1897: 469.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Family Rhodomelaceae – Tribe Amansieae

Selected citations: De Toni 1903: 1076. De Toni & Forti 1923: 46. Ducker et al. 1977: 87. Falkenberg 1901: 475, fig. 8B, pl. 9 fig. 6. Guiler 1952: 106. Huisman 1997: 207. Huisman & Walker 1990: 440. King et al. 1971: 124. Kylin 1956: 542. Lucas 1909: 45; 1929b: 51. Lucas & Perrin 1947: 295, fig. 139. May 1965: 384. Reinbold 1899: 48. Shepherd 1983: 83. Shepherd & Womersley 1981: 368. Silva et al. 1996: 548. Wilson & Kraft 2000: 360, figs 25–27. Womersley 1950: 189.


Rhodomela australasica Montagne 1840: 154.

Rytiphlaea australasica (Montagne) Harvey 1847: 32; 1855a: 538; 1858: pl. 27; 1863, synop.: xviii. J. Agardh 1863: 1092. Sonder 1880: 33. Tate 1882a: 23. Tisdall 1898: 513. Wilson 1892: 166.

Rytiphlaea australis (Montagne) Endlicher 1843: 48. Harvey 1859b: 298. Sonder 1853: 700.

Halopithys australasica (Montagne) Kützing 1849: 841; 1865: 10, pl. 27e-g.

Lophura australasica (Montagne) Kützing 1849: 851.

Thallus (Fig. 162A) medium to dark red-brown, 5–15 cm high, spreading, oppositely but irregularly branched by loss of laterals, branches linear, compressed, endogenous, 0.5–1.5 mm broad, apices revolute (Fig. 162B), with a slight midrib, some axes with tendril-like ends. Holdfast discoid or tendril-like; epiphytic on Amphibolis or algae, or epilithic. Structure.

Apical cell dome-shaped, 20–25 µm in diameter (including thick walls), cutting off 6 pericentral cells (Fig. 162C), 2 lateral, 2 dorsal and 2 ventral, with frequent abaxial trichoblasts from each segment near apices and occasionally on the margins. Cortex present from near apices, 2–3 cells broad on edges and 1–2 cells thick on faces of branches. Cells uni- or multinucleate; rhodoplasts discoid, chained in larger cells.

Reproduction: Gametophytes dioecious. Procarps on the lower cells of trichoblasts, with a 4-celled carpogonial branch, borne abaxially on short marginal or submarginal involute branchlets. Carposporophytes with a basal fusion cell and short, branched gonimoblast with clavate to obovoid terminal carposporangia. Cystocarps (Fig. 162D) ovoid, short-stalked, 500–700 µm in diameter; pericarp ostiolate, 3–5 cells thick. Spermatangial organs (Fig. 162E) on branches of trichoblasts borne on short lateral branchlets, globose to shortly ovoid, 180–220 µm in diameter, with 1 (–3) sterile basal cells 30–50 µm in diameter and L/D 2–4.

Tetrasporangial stichidia (Fig. 162F) marginal or submarginal, in groups of 1–3, terminally involute, lanceolate, compressed, corticated, 0.9–1.6 mm long and 250–300 µm broad, with tetrasporangia paired, in two longitudinal rows, 80–120 µm in diameter; adaxial trichoblasts often present near apices of stichidia.

Type from Tasmania [probably Storm Bay, Tas. (Labillardière)]; holotype in Herb. Montagne, PC.

Selected specimens: Port Denison, W. Aust., drift (Kraft 4007, 14.xii.1971; AD, A41712). Point Peron, W. Aust., drift (Mitchell, 22.ix.1966; AD, A30759). Head of Great Australian Bight, S. Aust., drift (Woelkerling, 4.xi.1968; AD, A34198). Elliston, S. Aust., 7 m deep in bay (Shepherd, 20.x.1970; AD, A37627). N Spencer Gulf, S. Aust., 12 m deep (Shepherd, 6.ix.1973; AD, A44452). Tiparra Reef, S. Aust., on Amphibolis griffithii, 11 m deep (Shepherd, 24.ii.1971; AD, A38232). Marino, S. Aust., on A. antarctica, 3 m deep (Owen, 27.i.1972; AD, A47229). Port Elliot, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 17.x.1948; AD, A9424). Strawbridge Point, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 29.x.1995; AD, A64617). Pennington Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., sublittoral fringe (Womersley, 31.xii.1949; AD, A12807). Port MacDonnell, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 27.x.1996; AD, A66727). Point Lonsdale, Vic., drift (Sinkora A1050, 14.xi.1970; AD, A62764). San Remo, Vic., drift (Sinkora A2023, 27.xi.1974; AD, A62763). Port Sorell, N Tas., drift (Womersley, 9.xi.1982; AD, A56240). Lady Bay, Southport, Tas., 3–5 m deep (Brown & Womersley, 28.x.1982; AD, A56530).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: Port Denison, W. Aust., to San Remo, Vic., and around Tasmania.

Taxonomic notes: Protokuetzingia australasica is not uncommon in shallow water on calm to rough-water coasts along most of southern Australia.


AGARDH, J.G. (1863). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 2, Part 3, pp. 787–1291. (Gleerup: Lund.)

DE TONI, G.B. & FORTI, A. (1923). Alghe di Australia, Tasmania e Nouva Zelanda. Mem. R. Inst. Veneto Sci., Lett. Arti 29, 1–183, Plates 1–10.

DE TONI, G.B. (1903). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 4. Florideae. Sect. 3. pp. 775–1521 + 1523–1525. (Padua.)

DUCKER, S.C., FOORD, N.J. & KNOX, R.B. (1977). Biology of Australian Seagrasses: the genus Amphibolis C. Agardh (Cymodoceaceae). Aust. J. Bot. 25, 67–95.

ENDLICHER, S.L. (1843). Mantissa botanica altera. Sistens generum plantarum supplementum tertium. (Vindobonae.) vi+ 1 1 1 pp.

FALKENBERG, P. (1901). Die Rhodomelaceen des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-abschnitte. Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel. Monogr. 26. (Friedländer: Berlin.)

GUILER, E.R. (1952). The marine algae of Tasmania. Checklist with localities. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasmania 86, 71–106.

HARVEY, W.H. (1847). Nereis Australis, pp. 1–69, Plates 1–25. (Reeve: London.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1855a). Some account of the marine botany of the colony of Western Australia. Trans. R. Jr. Acad. 22, 525–566.

HARVEY, W.H. (1858). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 1, Plates 1–60. (Reeve: London.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1859b). Algae. In Hooker, J.D., The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage. III. Flora Tasmaniae. Vol. II, pp. 282–343, Plates 185–196. (Reeve: London.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1863). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 5, Plates 241–300, synop., pp. i-lxxiii. (Reeve: London.)

HUISMAN, J.M. & WALKER, D.I. (1990). A catalogue of the marine plants of Rottnest Island, Western Australia, with notes on their distribution and biogeography. Kingia 1, 349–459.

HUISMAN, J.M. (1997). Marine Benthic Algae of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia. In Wells, F.E. (Ed.) The Marine Flora and Fauna of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia, pp. 177–237. (W. Aust. Museum: Perth.)

KÜTZING, F.T. (1849). Species Algarum. (Leipzig.)

KÜTZING, F.T. (1865). Tabulae Phycologicae. Vol. 15. (Nordhausen.)

KING, R.J., BLACK, J.H. & DUCKER, S. (1971). Port Phillip Bay Survey 2.8. Intertidal ecology of Port Phillip Bay with systematic lists of plants and animals. Mem. Natn. Mus., Vict. 32, 93–128.

KYLIN, H. (1956). Die Gattungen der Rhodophyceen. (Gleerups: Lund.)

LUCAS, A.H.S. & PERRIN, F. (1947). The Seaweeds of South Australia. Part 2. The Red Seaweeds. (Govt Printer: Adelaide.)

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1909). Revised list of the Fucoideae and Florideae of Australia. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 34, 9–60.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1929b). A census of the marine algae of South Australia. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 53, 45–53.

MAY, V. (1965). A census and key to the species of Rhodophyceae (red algae) recorded from Australia. Contr. N.S. W. Natl Herb. 3, 349–429.

REINBOLD, T. (1899). Meeresalgen von Investigator Street (Süd Australien), gesammelt von Miss Nellie Davey (Waltham, Honiton). Hedwigia 38, 39–51.

SCHMITZ, F. & FALKENBERG, P. (1897). Rhodomelaceae. In Engler, A. & Prantl, K., Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. T.1. Abt. 2, pp. 421–480. (Englemann: Leipzig.)

SHEPHERD, S.A. & WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1981). The algal and seagrass ecology of Waterloo Bay, South Australia. Aquat. Bot. 11, 305–371.

SHEPHERD, S.A. (1983). Benthic communities of upper Spencer Gulf, South Australia. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 107, 69–85.

SILVA, P.C., BASSON, P.W. & MOE, R.L. (1996). Catalogue of the Benthic Marine Algae of the Indian Ocean. (Univ. California Press: Berkeley.)

SONDER, O.W. (1853). Plantae Muellerianae. Algae. Linnaea 25, 657–709.

SONDER, O.W. (1880). In Mueller, F., Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae. Supplementum ad volumen undecinum: Algae Australianae hactenus cognitae, pp. 1–42, 105–107. (Melbourne.)

TATE, R. (1882a). A list of the charas, mosses, liverworts, lichens, fungs, and algals of extratropical South Australia. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 4, 5–24.

TISDALL, H.T. (1898). The algae of Victoria. Rep. 7th Meet. Aust. Ass. Adv. Sci., Sydney, 1898, pp. 493–516.

WILSON, S.M. & KRAFT, G.T. (2000). Morphological and taxonomic studies of selected genera from the Tribe Amansieae (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta). Aust. Syst. Bot. 13, 325–372.

WILSON, J.B. (1892). Catalogue of algae collected at or near Port Phillip Heads and Western Port. Proc. R. Soc. Viet. 4, 157–190.

WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1950). The marine algae of Kangaroo Island. III. List of Species 1. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 73, 137–197.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIID complete list of references.

Author: By H.B.S. Womersley, S.M. Wilson & G.T. Kraft

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (24 February, 2003)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIID. Ceramiales – Delesseriaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodomelaceae
Reproduced with permission from The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIID 2003, by H.B.S. Womersley. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia.

Illustration in Womersley Part IIIA, 2003: FIG. 162.

Figure 162 image

Figure 162   enlarge

Fig. 162. Protokuetzingia australasica (AD, A64617). A. Habit. B. Revolute apex of branch. C. Transverse section of branch with 6 pericentral cells. D. Cystocarp with carposporophyte. E. Branch with spermatangia] organs. F. Stichidia with paired tetrasporangia.

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