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Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet

Myriogramme gunniana (Hooker & Harvey) Kylin 1924: 60.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Family Delesseriaceae

Selected citations: Guiler 1952: 102. Levring 1946: 225. May 1965: 400. Shepherd & Womersley 1981: 366. Womersley 1966: 152.


Nitophyllum gunnianum Hooker & Harvey 1847: 403. J. Agardh 1852: 663; 1872: 49; 1876: 456; 1879: 60, pl. 27 fig 13; 1898: 44. De Toni 1900: 634. Harvey 1849a: 120, pl. 47; 1859b: 312; 1863: pl. 241, synop.: xxxii. Lucas 1909: 35; 1926: 597; 1929a: 19; 1929b: 50. Lucas & Perrin 1947: 220, fig. 84. Reinbold 1897: 54. Sonder 1853: 690; 1880: 23. Tisdall 1898: 509. Wilson 1892: 174.

Aglaophyllum gunnianum (Harvey) Kützing 1849: 868; 1866: 14, pl. 40.

Nitophyllum obscurum J. Agardh 1876: 452. Lucas 1926: 597. Sonder 1880: 23. Tisdall 1898: 509. Wilson 1892: 174.

Thallus (Fig. 48A) dark red-brown, (5–) 10–20 (–30) cm high, foliose and usually irregularly divided or lacerate, branches mostly 1–3 (–5) cm broad, terminally rounded, margins entire to very slightly dentate, surface often irregularly perforate (from grazing). Lower parts developing a central midrib, becoming stipe-like below by loss of lateral blades; microscopic veins absent. Holdfast becoming much divided and fibrous, 2–10 mm across; epilithic. Structure. Growth marginal with irregular intercalary submarginal divisions producing blades (Fig. 48C) with irregularly arranged cells 15–35 (–45) µm across and L/D 1–2 in surface view; occasional small marginal spines with small apical cells occur. Fronds monostromatic when young and 50–70 µm thick, soon tristromatic (Fig. 48B) and 90–120 µm thick, becoming polystromatic in the midrib and where reproductive, with corticating cells equivalent and similar in size to the primary cells. Cells multinucleate, nuclei on anticlinal walls; rhodoplasts discoid.

Reproduction: Gametophytes dioecious. Procarps (Fig. 54B) scattered (Fig. 48C), with primary cells bearing a cover cell and a fertile pericentral cell with sterile cells and a 4-celled carpogonial branch (Fig. 48D). Carposporophytes (Fig. 48E, F) with a basal fusion cell and much branched gonimoblast with short terminal chains of ovoid carposporangia 25–35 µm in diameter, maturing sequentially. Cystocarps scattered, 1–1.6 mm across, hemispherical; pericarp ostiolate, thick, with anticlinal filaments of isodiametric cells. Spermatangial sori ovate to elongate, 200–500 µm across and 80–100 thick (Fig. 48G) with primary cells producing a layer of cortical initials with blocks of elongate spermatangia corresponding to the primary cells.

Tetrasporangial sori (Fig. 49A) scattered, ovate, 200–450 µm across and 150–250 µm thick, with tetrasporangia in 2 layers (Fig. 49B) cut off from inner cortical cells (Fig. 48B) and covered by smaller outer cortical cells; tetrasporangia subspherical, 45–65 µm in diameter.

Type from Georgetown, Tas. (Gunn); holotype in Herb. Harvey, TCD, labelled "original specimen from herb. Hooker."

Selected specimens: [Probable records: Whitford Beach, Perth, W. Aust., 4–5 m deep (Lipkin, 6.ii.1982; AD, A52958). The Hotspot, Flinders I., S. Aust., 25 m deep (Branden, 23.i.1991; AD, A61223)]. Port Elliot, S. Aust., drift (Woelkerling, 15.i.1968; AD, A50316). Stinky Bay, Nora Creina, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 16.iv.1959; AD, A23069). 1.3 km off Cape Northumberland, S. Aust., 15 m deep (Shepherd, 1.ii.1978; AD, A55251). Queenscliff, Vic., drift (Womersley, 8.iv.1959; AD, A22874). Crawfish Rock, Westernport Bay, Vic., 5 m deep (Shepherd, 31.i.1970; AD, A35223) and 8 m deep (Watson & Womersley, 16.i.1974; AD, A45018-"Marine Algae of southern Australia" No. 155). San Remo Back Beach, Western Port, Vic., drift (Sinkora A674, 11.vii.1970; AD, A62721). Walkerville, Vic., drift (Sinkora A2273, 6.iii.1976; AD, A48275). West Cove, Erith I., Bass Strait, 28 m deep (Shepherd & R. Lewis, 10.v.1974; AD, A45258). Low Head, Tas. (Perrin 1219, 4.xi.1950; AD, A49612). Blackmans Bay (Hobart), Tas., drift (Tyler, 17.x.1973; AD, A44235). Charlotte Cove, SE Tas., 8 m deep (Edgar 12, 19.vi.1995; AD, A64313). Satellite I., D'Entrecasteaux Ch., Tas., 10 m deep (Shepherd, 18.ii.1972; AD, A41779). Bruny I., (opposite Gordon), Tas., 2–3 m deep (Brown, 10.x.1986; AD, A57826).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: Probably from Whitford Beach, Perth, W. Aust., and Flinders I., S. Aust.; mainly from Port Elliot, S. Aust., to Walkerville, Vic., and around Tasmania.

Taxonomic notes: M. gunniana is a common species on SE Australian coasts, with probable records as far west as Whitford Beach, Perth, W. Australia.

Nitophyllum obscurum J. Agardh, type from Tasmania (not located in 1952), is probably not distinct from M. gunniana. J. Agardh did not mention it in his later publications and may have realised that it was not distinct.


AGARDH, J.G. (1852). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 2, Part 2, pp. 337–720. (Gleerup: Lund.)

AGARDH, J.G. (1872). Bidrag till Florideernes Systematik. Acta Univ. Lund 8, 1–60.

AGARDH, J.G. (1876). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 3, Part 1 - Epicrisis systematis Floridearum, pp. i-vii, 1–724. (Weigel: Leipzig.)

AGARDH, J.G. (1879). Florideernes morphologi. K. Svenska Vetensk. Akad. Handl. 15(6), 1–199, Plates 1–33.

AGARDH, J.G. (1898). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 3, Part 3 - De dispositione Delesseriearum. (Gleerup: Lund.)

DE TONI, G.B. (1900). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 4. Florideae. Sect. 2. pp. 387–776. (Padua.)

GUILER, E.R. (1952). The marine algae of Tasmania. Checklist with localities. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasmania 86, 71–106.

HARVEY, W.H. (1849a). Nereis Australis, pp. 65–124, Plates 26–50. (Reeve: London.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1859b). Algae. In Hooker, J.D., The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage. III. Flora Tasmaniae. Vol. II, pp. 282–343, Plates 185–196. (Reeve: London.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1863). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 5, Plates 241–300, synop., pp. i-lxxiii. (Reeve: London.)

HOOKER, J.D. & HARVEY, W.H. (1847). Algae Tasmanicae. Lond. J. Bot. 6, 397–417.

KÜTZING, F.T. (1849). Species Algarum. (Leipzig.)

KÜTZING, F.T. (1866). Tabulae Phycologicae. Vol. 16. (Nordhausen.)

KYLIN, H. (1924). Studien über die Delesseriaceen. Lunds Univ. Årsskr. N.F. Avd. 2, 20(6), 1–111.

LEVRING, T. (1946). A list of marine algae from Australia and Tasmania. Acta Horti gothoburg 16, 215–227.

LUCAS, A.H.S. & PERRIN, F. (1947). The Seaweeds of South Australia. Part 2. The Red Seaweeds. (Govt Printer: Adelaide.)

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1909). Revised list of the Fucoideae and Florideae of Australia. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 34, 9–60.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1926). Notes on Australian marine algae. III. The Australian species of the genus Nitophyllum. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 51, 594–607, Plates 37–45.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1929a). The marine algae of Tasmania. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasm. 1928, 6–27.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1929b). A census of the marine algae of South Australia. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 53, 45–53.

MAY, V. (1965). A census and key to the species of Rhodophyceae (red algae) recorded from Australia. Contr. N.S. W. Natl Herb. 3, 349–429.

REINBOLD, T. (1897). Die Algen der Lacepede und Guichen Bay und deren náherer Umgebung (Slid Australien), gesammelt von Dr. A. Engelhart-Kingston. Nuova Notarisia 8, 41–62.

SHEPHERD, S.A. & WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1981). The algal and seagrass ecology of Waterloo Bay, South Australia. Aquat. Bot. 11, 305–371.

SONDER, O.W. (1853). Plantae Muellerianae. Algae. Linnaea 25, 657–709.

SONDER, O.W. (1880). In Mueller, F., Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae. Supplementum ad volumen undecinum: Algae Australianae hactenus cognitae, pp. 1–42, 105–107. (Melbourne.)

TISDALL, H.T. (1898). The algae of Victoria. Rep. 7th Meet. Aust. Ass. Adv. Sci., Sydney, 1898, pp. 493–516.

WILSON, J.B. (1892). Catalogue of algae collected at or near Port Phillip Heads and Western Port. Proc. R. Soc. Viet. 4, 157–190.

WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1966). Port Phillip survey, 1957–1963: Algae. Mem. natl. Mus., Vict. No. 27, 133–156.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIID complete list of references.

Author: H. B. S. Womersley

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (24 February, 2003)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIID. Ceramiales – Delesseriaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodomelaceae
Reproduced with permission from The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIID 2003, by H.B.S. Womersley. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia.

Illustrations in Womersley Part IIIA, 2003: PLATE 1 fig. 1; FIGS 48, 49A, B, 54B.

Plate 1 image

Plate 1   enlarge

PLATE 1 fig. 1. Myriogramme gunniana at Charlotte Cove, Tas. Cystocarpic. (AD, A64313). Photograph - G. Edgar.
fig. 2. Lophurella periclados at Back Beach, Little Dip Conservation Park, S.A., in shallow pools. (AD, A68511). Photograph - H.B.S. Womersley.

Figure 48 image

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Fig. 48. Myriogramme gunniana (A, E, AD, A45018; B, AD, A35223; C, D, AD, A57826; F, AD, A64313; G, AD, A55251). A. Habit. B. Transverse section of thallus. C. Apex of branch with procarps. D. Procarps with 2 sterile cover cells (above), a carpogonial branch, and 3 sterile cells (below). E. Section of a young cystocarp. F. Section of a mature cystocarp with basal fusion cell and gonimoblast with short chains of carposporangia. G. Transverse section of spermatangial sorus.

Figure 49 image

Figure 49   enlarge

Fig. 49. A, B. Myriogramme gunniana (AD, A45018). A. Tetrasporangial sori. B. Transverse section of tetrasporangial sorus. C–F. Myriogramme cartilaginea (C, isolectotype in TCD; D, E, AD, A18533; F, AD, A67903). C. Habit of isotype. D. Branch with tetrasporangial sorus. E. Tetrasporangial sori. F. Transverse section of tetrasporangial sorus.

Figure 54 image

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Fig. 54. Procarps. A. Platyclinia stipitata (AD, A61443). B. Myriogramme gunniana (AD, A57826). C. Schizoseris bombayensis (AD, A68032). D. Nitophyllum crispum (AD, A57770). E. Haraldiophyllum nottii (AD, A46142).

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