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Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet

Lophurella periclados (Sonder) Schmitz in Schmitz & Falkenberg 1897: 441.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Family Rhodomelaceae – Tribe Polysiphonieae

Selected citations: De Toni 1903: 855; 1924: 387. De Toni & Forti 1923: 38. Falkenberg 1901: 154, pl. 19 figs 24–26. Guiler 1952: 102. King et al. 1971: 124. Kylin 1956: 501. Lucas 1909: 40; 1929a: 21. Lucas & Perrin 1947: 261. May 1965: 383; 1981: 332. Millar & Kraft 1993: 56. Womersley 1950: 184; 1966: 153.


Rhodomela periclados Sonder 1855: 523; 1880: 33. J. Agardh 1863: 878. Harvey 1858: pl. 28; 1859b: 296; 1863, synop.: xviii. Tisdall 1898: 513. Wilson 1892: 168.

Lophurella hookeriana sensu Guiler 1952: 102. Lucas 1909: 40? Lucas & Perrin 1947: 262? May 1965: 383?

Rhodomela simpliciuscula Harvey in Alg. Aust. Exsicc. No. 136, nom. nudum. Tisdall 1898: 513.

Thallus (Fig. 91A) very dark red-brown, drying almost black, 4–10 (–15) cm high, erect, tufted, usually with numerous terete axes (becoming denuded below) arising from entangled prostrate branches, upper axes densely covered with radial, becoming branched (mainly adaxially), more-or-less determinate laterals 1–3 (–4) mm long. Attachment by rhizoids on prostrate branches; epilithic or on mussels, occasionally epiphytic. Structure. Apices (Fig. 91B) surrounded by young determinate laterals, apical cells dome-shaped, segmenting transversely to slightly obliquely, producing 4 pericentral cells which become corticated within a few segments of apices, heavily corticated (Fig. 91C) below on axes. Trichoblasts mainly on determinate laterals, usually 2 axial cells apart but soon caducous, 200–400 µm long with 4–5 branches, lower cells 15–25 µm in diameter and L/D 1–2, tapering above with longer cells. Determinate laterals 100–200 µm in diameter, probably arising in place of trichoblasts. Axes 0.5–1 mm in diameter above, 1–2 mm in diameter below, prostrate branches 0.5–1 mm in diameter; outer cortical cells more-or-less in longitudinal lines, 10–20 µm across and L/D 1–2; rhizoids cut off from cortical cells, 25–50 µm in diameter, with digitate haptera. Rhodoplasts discoid, becoming ribbon-like in larger cells.

Reproduction: Gametophytes dioecious. Carposporophytes (Fig. 91D) with a basal fusion cell, branched gonimoblast and elongate-clavate terminal carposporangia 20–30 µm in diameter. Cystocarps sessile or short-stalked, ovoid, 300–600 µm in diameter; pericarp ostiolate, without a neck, corticate and 2–3 cells thick. Spermatangial branches (Fig. 91E) usually replacing the whole trichoblast, with a sterile basal cell and 1 (–2) short apical cells, 150–200 µm long and 50–100 µm in diameter.

Tetrasporangia (Fig. 91F) in determinate lateral branches, extending over 1–2 mm, branches 100–150 µm thick, one per segment, spirally arranged, slightly swelling the branches, 40–75 µm in diameter.

Type from Port Phillip, Vic. (Mueller, 1.xi.1852); lectotype in MEL, 612898; isolectotypes MEL, 612897, 612899, 612900.

Selected specimens: Port Elliot, S. Aust., lower eulittoral (Womersley, 17.x.1948; AD, A9332). Pennington Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., sublittoral fringe (Womersley, 6.i.1947; AD, A4445). Robe, S. Aust., sublittoral fringe in bay (Womersley, 30.viii.1949; AD, Al 1085). Back Beach, Little Dip Conservation Park, S. Aust., low eulittoral (Womersley, 24.iv.2000; AD, A68511-"Marine Algae of southern Australia" No. 411 a). Cape Buffon, S. Aust., low eulittoral on mussels, N E side near jetty (Womersley, 26.xi.1999; AD, A68398-"Marine Algae of southern Australia" No. 411). Bridgewater Bay, Vic, sublittoral fringe (Womersley, 28.i.1964; AD, A27426). Warrnambool, Vic. Upper sublittoral (Womersley, 13.iv.1959; AD, A22901). Port Arlington, Port Phillip, Vic., 0–2 m deep (Womersley, 9.viii.1959; AD, A23107). Point Hicks, E Vic., 9–12 m deep (Kraft & Watt, 8.ii.2001; MELU and AD, A69084). Mallacoota, Vic. (Harada, 13.xi.1977; AD, A52507). Crayfish Point, Taroona, Tas, 0–6 m deep (Sanderson, 29.v.1992; AD, A61746).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: Pennington Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., to E Victoria and SE Tasmania; Stanwell Pk (S of Sydney), N.S.W. (Millar & Kraft 1993, p. 56).

New Zealand (Adams 1994, p. 330).

Taxonomic notes: L. periclados usually forms dense turfs at about low tide level (an unusual depth record from Point Hicks) on coasts of moderate to strong wave action. The Tasmanian specimens, from more sheltered coasts, are laxer, more elongate, plants.


ADAMS, N.M. (1994). Seaweeds of New Zealand. (Cant. Univ. Press: Christchurch.)

AGARDH, J.G. (1863). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 2, Part 3, pp. 787–1291. (Gleerup: Lund.)

DE TONI, G.B. & FORTI, A. (1923). Alghe di Australia, Tasmania e Nouva Zelanda. Mem. R. Inst. Veneto Sci., Lett. Arti 29, 1–183, Plates 1–10.

DE TONI, G.B. (1903). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 4. Florideae. Sect. 3. pp. 775–1521 + 1523–1525. (Padua.)

DE TONI, G.B. (1924). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 6. Florideae. (Padua.)

FALKENBERG, P. (1901). Die Rhodomelaceen des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-abschnitte. Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel. Monogr. 26. (Friedländer: Berlin.)

GUILER, E.R. (1952). The marine algae of Tasmania. Checklist with localities. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasmania 86, 71–106.

HARVEY, W.H. (1858). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 1, Plates 1–60. (Reeve: London.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1859b). Algae. In Hooker, J.D., The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage. III. Flora Tasmaniae. Vol. II, pp. 282–343, Plates 185–196. (Reeve: London.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1863). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 5, Plates 241–300, synop., pp. i-lxxiii. (Reeve: London.)

KING, R.J., BLACK, J.H. & DUCKER, S. (1971). Port Phillip Bay Survey 2.8. Intertidal ecology of Port Phillip Bay with systematic lists of plants and animals. Mem. Natn. Mus., Vict. 32, 93–128.

KYLIN, H. (1956). Die Gattungen der Rhodophyceen. (Gleerups: Lund.)

LUCAS, A.H.S. & PERRIN, F. (1947). The Seaweeds of South Australia. Part 2. The Red Seaweeds. (Govt Printer: Adelaide.)

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1909). Revised list of the Fucoideae and Florideae of Australia. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 34, 9–60.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1929a). The marine algae of Tasmania. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasm. 1928, 6–27.

MAY, V. (1965). A census and key to the species of Rhodophyceae (red algae) recorded from Australia. Contr. N.S. W. Natl Herb. 3, 349–429.

MAY, V. (1981). Long-term variation in algal intertidal floras. Aust. J. Ecol. 6, 329–343.

MILLAR, A.J.K. & KRAFT, G.T. (1993). Catalogue of marine and freshwater Red Algae (Rhodophyta) of New South Wales, including Lord Howe Island, South-western Pacific. Aust. Syst. Bot. 6, 1–90.

SCHMITZ, F. & FALKENBERG, P. (1897). Rhodomelaceae. In Engler, A. & Prantl, K., Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. T.1. Abt. 2, pp. 421–480. (Englemann: Leipzig.)

SONDER, O.W. (1855). Algae annis 1852 et 1853 collectae. Linnaea 26, 506–528.

SONDER, O.W. (1880). In Mueller, F., Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae. Supplementum ad volumen undecinum: Algae Australianae hactenus cognitae, pp. 1–42, 105–107. (Melbourne.)

TISDALL, H.T. (1898). The algae of Victoria. Rep. 7th Meet. Aust. Ass. Adv. Sci., Sydney, 1898, pp. 493–516.

WILSON, J.B. (1892). Catalogue of algae collected at or near Port Phillip Heads and Western Port. Proc. R. Soc. Viet. 4, 157–190.

WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1950). The marine algae of Kangaroo Island. III. List of Species 1. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 73, 137–197.

WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1966). Port Phillip survey, 1957–1963: Algae. Mem. natl. Mus., Vict. No. 27, 133–156.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIID complete list of references.

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (24 February, 2003)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIID. Ceramiales – Delesseriaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodomelaceae
Reproduced with permission from The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIID 2003, by H.B.S. Womersley. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia.

Illustrations in Womersley Part IIIA, 2003: PLATE 1 fig. 2; FIG. 91.

Plate 1 image

Plate 1   enlarge

PLATE 1 fig. 1. Myriogramme gunniana at Charlotte Cove, Tas. Cystocarpic. (AD, A64313). Photograph - G. Edgar.
fig. 2. Lophurella periclados at Back Beach, Little Dip Conservation Park, S.A., in shallow pools. (AD, A68511). Photograph - H.B.S. Womersley.

Figure 91 image

Figure 91   enlarge

Fig. 91. Lophurella periclados (A–C, E, F, AD, A68511; D, AD, A68398). A. Habit, tetrasporophyte left, male plants right. B. Apex of indeterminate axis. C. Transverse section of indeterminate axis. D. Longitudinal section of cystocarp. E. Spermatangial branches. F. Determinate lateral branches with tetrasporangia.

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