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Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet

Lenormandia muelleri Sonder 1853: 696; 1855: 523; 1880: 32.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Family Rhodomelaceae – Tribe Amansieae

Selected citations: J. Agardh 1863: 1105. De Toni 1903: 1116. De Toni & Forti 1923: 49. Falkenberg 1901: 467, pl. 8 figs 13–16. Fuhrer et al. 1981: pl. 40. Garnet 1971: 95. Guiler 1952: 106. Harvey 1858: p1. 45; 1863, synop.: xvi. Kützing 1869: 6, pl. 15a, b. Lucas 1909: 46; 1929b: 51. Lucas & Perrin 1947: 300, fig. 142. May 1965: 397. Phillips 2002a: 197, figs 2, 9, 10. Reinbold 1897: 55. Shepherd & Womersley 1971: 166. Tate 1882c: 22. Tisdall 1898: 513. Wilson 1892: 166. Womersley 1950: 189.


Lenormandia grevilleana J. Agardh ex Tisdall 1898: 513, nom. nud.

Thallus (Fig. 166A) dark brown-red, 20–50 (–80) cm high, probably perennial, much branched with 3–4 orders of elongate-ovate blades all with distinct stipes 1–10 cm long, the lower axis denuded and secondarily thickened and usually several cm long, compressed to terete and 1–2 mm broad; blades simple, ovate to elongate, arising from the midrib of older blades, margins entire, smooth to undulating, 5–20 cm long and (1–) 2–4 (–8) cm broad, midrib distinct, becoming heavily thickened in the stipes. Holdfast discoid, becoming branched, 2–20 mm across; epilithic or epiphytic (on Osmundaria). Structure. Apices cleft (Fig. 166C), apical cell conical, 30–50 µm in diameter (including very thick wall), axial cells cutting off probably 5 pericentral cells (Fig. 166B) but these soon indistinct in transverse section; medulla irregular, 2–3 cells broad, cortex 2–3 cells broad, cells in surface view irregular, angular, 8–15 µm across, L/D 1–1.5, with clear rhombic areolation in young blades. Trichoblasts on midrib of young blades and associated with reproductive organs, 0.5–1 mm long, basal cell 40–60 µm in diameter, L/D 1–2. Cortical cells uninucleate, medullary cells probably multinucleate; rhodoplasts discoid, chained in larger cells.

Reproduction: Gametophytes dioecious. Procarps on reduced trichoblasts, becoming polysiphonous as short, branched, outgrowths scattered on the blade surface. Carposporophytes with a basal fusion cell and much branched gonimoblast with clavate terminal carposporangia 40–60 µm in diameter. Cystocarps (Fig. 166D) usually single, stalked, ovoid, 1–1.5 mm in diameter; pericarp ostiolate, 7–12 cells thick. Spermatangial organs (Fig. 166E) in dense clusters on branches of trichoblasts at the base of short, flat, proliferations on branch surfaces, 40–80 µm in diameter and L/D 1–2.5.

Tetrasporangial stichidia clustered, scattered on blade surface, often mainly on one surface, slightly compressed, 1–2 mm long and 200–400 µm broad, corticated, with tetrasporangia in opposite pairs, 60–80 µm in diameter.

Type from Rivoli Bay, S. Aust.; holotype in Herb. Sonder, MEL, 657622.

Selected specimens: Port Elliot, S. Aust., drift (Hussey, May 1898; AD, A1382). Robe, S. Aust., drift (Shepley, 27.iii.1959; AD, A22972). Stinky Bay, Nora Creina, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 19.viii.1957; AD, A21286). Off Cape Buffon, S. Aust., 5 m deep (Collings, 25.i.1991; AD, A61240 -"Marine Algae of southern Australia" No. 354). 1.35 km off Middle Point, Cape Northumberland, S. Aust., 15 m deep (Johnson, 20.iii.1974; AD, A45013). Lawrence Rock, Portland, Vic., 24–30 m deep (Owen, 2.ix.1971; AD, A39662). Warrnambool, Vic., drift (Kraft 7594, 10.viii.1984; MELU) and (Kraft 7992 & Herrington, 6.xi.1989; MELU). Point Roadknight, Vic., drift (Womersley, 6.vi.1953; AD, A18801). Wilsons Promontory, Vic., drift (Wilson; MEL, 657626). Hen & Chickens Rocks, Bruny I., Tas., sublittoral (Sanderson, 3.i.1988; AD, A68744).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: Port Elliot, S. Aust., to Wilsons Prom., Victoria and Bruny I., Tasmania. Auckland Is ? (Papenfuss 1964b, p. 60).

Taxonomic notes: L. muelleri is distinguished by its dimensions, coarse thickened stipes below the blades and branching from the stipes. It is a deep-water species on eastern southern Australian coasts.


AGARDH, J.G. (1863). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 2, Part 3, pp. 787–1291. (Gleerup: Lund.)

DE TONI, G.B. & FORTI, A. (1923). Alghe di Australia, Tasmania e Nouva Zelanda. Mem. R. Inst. Veneto Sci., Lett. Arti 29, 1–183, Plates 1–10.

DE TONI, G.B. (1903). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 4. Florideae. Sect. 3. pp. 775–1521 + 1523–1525. (Padua.)

FALKENBERG, P. (1901). Die Rhodomelaceen des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-abschnitte. Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel. Monogr. 26. (Friedländer: Berlin.)

FUHRER, B., CHRISTIANSON, I.G., CLAYTON, M.N. & ALLENDER, B.M. (1981). Seaweeds of Australia. (Reed: Sydney.)

GARNET, J.R. (1971). Checklist No. 6 – Marine and Freshwater Algae. In The Wildflowers of Wilson's Promontory National Park, pp. 93–97. (Lothian: Melbourne.)

GUILER, E.R. (1952). The marine algae of Tasmania. Checklist with localities. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasmania 86, 71–106.

HARVEY, W.H. (1858). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 1, Plates 1–60. (Reeve: London.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1863). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 5, Plates 241–300, synop., pp. i-lxxiii. (Reeve: London.)

KÜTZING, F.T. (1869). Tabulae Phycologicae. Vol. 19. (Nordhausen.)

LUCAS, A.H.S. & PERRIN, F. (1947). The Seaweeds of South Australia. Part 2. The Red Seaweeds. (Govt Printer: Adelaide.)

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1909). Revised list of the Fucoideae and Florideae of Australia. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 34, 9–60.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1929b). A census of the marine algae of South Australia. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 53, 45–53.

MAY, V. (1965). A census and key to the species of Rhodophyceae (red algae) recorded from Australia. Contr. N.S. W. Natl Herb. 3, 349–429.

PAPENFUSS, G.F. (1964b). Catalogue and bibliography of antarctic and subantarctic benthic marine algae. Am. geophys. Un. Antarctic Res. Ser., Vol. 1, pp. 1–76.

PHILLIPS, L.E. (2002a). Taxonomy and molecular phylogeny of the red algal genus Lenormandia (Rhodomelaceae, Ceramiales). J. Phycol. 38, 184–208.

REINBOLD, T. (1897). Die Algen der Lacepede und Guichen Bay und deren náherer Umgebung (Slid Australien), gesammelt von Dr. A. Engelhart-Kingston. Nuova Notarisia 8, 41–62.

SHEPHERD, S.A. & WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1971). Pearson Island Expedition 1969.-7. The subtidal ecology of benthic algae. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 95(3), 155–167.

SONDER, O.W. (1853). Plantae Muellerianae. Algae. Linnaea 25, 657–709.

SONDER, O.W. (1855). Algae annis 1852 et 1853 collectae. Linnaea 26, 506–528.

SONDER, O.W. (1880). In Mueller, F., Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae. Supplementum ad volumen undecinum: Algae Australianae hactenus cognitae, pp. 1–42, 105–107. (Melbourne.)

TISDALL, H.T. (1898). The algae of Victoria. Rep. 7th Meet. Aust. Ass. Adv. Sci., Sydney, 1898, pp. 493–516.

WILSON, J.B. (1892). Catalogue of algae collected at or near Port Phillip Heads and Western Port. Proc. R. Soc. Viet. 4, 157–190.

WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1950). The marine algae of Kangaroo Island. III. List of Species 1. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 73, 137–197.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIID complete list of references.

Author: by H.B.S. Womersley and L.E. Phillips

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (24 February, 2003)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIID. Ceramiales – Delesseriaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodomelaceae
Reproduced with permission from The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIID 2003, by H.B.S. Womersley. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia.

Illustration in Womersley Part IIIA, 2003: FIG. 166.

Figure 166 image

Figure 166   enlarge

Fig. 166. Lenormandia muelleri (A, B, D, AD, A21286; C, E, AD, A61240). A. Habit. B. Transverse section of older branch showing axial and pericentral cells and midrib cortication. C. Apical cleft and segmentation. D. Section of cystocarp. E. Spermatangial organs on trichoblasts.

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