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Hypoglossum heterocystideum (J. Agardh) J. Agardh 1898: 187.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Family Delesseriaceae

Selected citations: De Toni 1900: 691. Coppejans & Millar 2000: 330. Guiler 1952: 101. Huisman & Walker 1990: 430. Huisman et al. 1990: 95. Kendrick et al. 1990: 51. Kraft et al. 1999: 21. Kylin 1924: 9. Lucas 1909: 36; 1913: 58; 1929a: 20. Millar 1990: 427, fig. 57E–G. Millar & Kraft 1993: 46. Silva et al. 1996: 458. Tisdall 1898: 509.


Delesseria heterocystidea J. Agardh 1885: 71. Wilson 1890: 490; 1892: 174.

Delesseria hypoglossoides Harvey 1855a: 548; 1859a: pl. 87; 1863, synop.: xxxi. J. Agardh 1872: 57; 1876: 489. Kützing 1869: 5, pl. 13a-c. Sonder 1880: 24.

Hypoglossum hypoglossoides (Harvey) Womersley & Shepley 1982: 326, fig. 4. Kendrick et al. 1988: 204. [NON H hypoglossoides (Stackhouse) Collins & Hervey 1917: 116.]

Membranoptera hypoglossoides (Harvey) Kuntze 1891: 904.

Delesseria spathulata sensu Kt1tzing 1869: 5, pl. 12 d, e (not c). [NON D. spathulata Sonder 1845: 57; 1848: 194. Harvey 1855a: 548. Kützing 1869: 5, pl. 12 c Apoglossum spathulatum (Sonder) Womersley & Shepley [syn. A. tasmanicum (Mueller ex Harvey)J. Agardh].

Hypoglossum spathulatum sensu J. Agardh 1898: 186. Cribb 1983: 96, pl. 42 figs 1, 2? De Toni 1900: 689. Guiler 1952: 101. Kylin 1924: 9. Levring 1946: 225? Lucas 1909: 36. Lucas & Perrin 1947: 227. Shepherd & Womersley 1971: 166. Womersley 1950: 183. [NON H. spathulatum (Sonder) Kützing 1849: 877 Apoglossum spathulatum (Sonder) Womersley & Shepley 1982: 329.]

Delesseria hypoglossum sensu Harvey 1863, synop.: xxxi.

Delesseria undulata J. Agardh 1894: 66.

Hypoglossum undulatum (J. Agardh) J. Agardh 1898: 188. De Toni 1900: 692. Kylin 1924: 9. Lucas 1909: 36.

Hypoglossum marginatum J. Agardh 1898: 189. De Toni 1900: 695. Kylin 1924: 9. Lucas 1909: 36.

Thallus (Fig. 15A, B) pale grey-red to medium red, usually 3–6 (–10) cm high, with one to several much branched main axes, usually becoming densely tufted, branching irregular. Mature blades (1–) 2–5 (–8) mm broad, usually tapering gradually above to pointed apices (which become rounded when mature), margins entire and straight to convolute. Cortication usually slight, becoming moderate on lower midribs of larger plants. Marginal cells near apices occasionally fuse and develop outgrowing rhizoids (probably for attachment). Holdfast small, discoid; epiphytic on Posidonia. Structure. All second-order cells produce third-order rows (Fig. 16B, C) with the cells becoming elongate apart from the marginal (and often 1 or 2 submarginal) isodiametric cells (Figs 15F, 16C); the margin remains relatively linear. Cortication commences on older parts of lesser blades by rhizoidal filaments from the transverse pericentral cells, lying over the longitudinal margins of the pericentral cells and on older blades covering the pericentral cells (Fig. 15C) and becoming several layers thick on older midribs of larger plants. Cells uninucleate when small, 2–4 nucleate when larger; rhodoplasts discoid, becoming chained.

Reproduction: Gametophytes dioecious. Procarps single or few per blade, with 2 sterile groups (one 2-celled and one 1-celled) and a 4-celled carpogonial branch. Carposporophytes much branched from the basal fusion cell, with terminal elongate-ovoid to slightly pyriform carposporangia 20–50 µm in diameter; maturing singly and sequentially, and arising also from subapical cells. Cystocarps (Fig. 15D) maturing on medium to larger blades, subspherical, basally constricted, not urceolate, (0.5–) 1–1.5 mm in diameter; pericarp relatively thin, 2 or 3 cells thick. Spermatangial sori rounded, elongate or irregular (Fig. 15E), on both sides of the midrib of linear blades, usually separated by sterile areas but becoming confluent, arising from cells of the lateral cell rows and occasionally from the lateral pericentral cells.

Tetrasporangial sori rounded to elongate (Fig. 15F), on young blades with normal cell development. Tetrasporangia arise following production of cortical cells, first from the lateral pericentral cells (rarely from transverse pericentral cells) and later from adjacent cells of second- and third-order rows (Fig. 15G), occasionally (sometimes frequently) from corticating cells in older sori, usually producing a regular gradation of maturity, 50–100 µm in diameter.

Type from Port Phillip, Vic. (Wilson); lectotype in Herb. Agardh, LD, 31561.

Selected specimens: Salmon Bay, Rottnest I., W. Aust., drift (Parsons, 12.xi.1968; AD, A32138). Elkton, S. Aust., 10–11 m deep (Shepherd, 20.x.1969; AD, A35006). Hopkins I., S. Aust., 33 m deep (Brander, 8.i.1989; AD, A60012). Tapley Shoal, S. Aust., 13 m deep (Shepherd, 2.ii.1969; AD, A33525). Saunders Beach, Eastern Cove, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., drift (Mitchell, 25.viii.1963; AD, A26729 and 21.xi.1968; AD, A32133). American R. inlet, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., upper sublittoral (Womersley, 17.viii.1948; AD, A8544). Muston, American R. inlet, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., 2–3 m deep (Kraft, 7.iv.1972; AD, A42412). Low Head, Tas. (F. Perrin, Nov. 1949; AD, A16442).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: Port Denison, W. Aust., around southern Australia and Tasmania to Port Stephens, N.S.W. and possibly to Brisbane (Levring 1946, p. 225) and the southern Great Barrier Reef (Cribb 1983, p. 96), usually in shallow water but extending to 22 m deep.

N Papua New Guinea (Coppejans & Millar 2000, p. 330). Philippines (Kraft et al. 1999: 21).

Taxonomic notes: Following use of H. hypoglossoides by Womersley & Shepley (1982, p. 326) for the Australian species, Wynne (1984b) pointed out that this combination had been used for the type species by Collins & Hervey (1917, p. 116).

H. heterocystideum varies considerably in size and robustness. Western and South Australian specimens are generally slender, less than 5 cm high and have only slight cortication. Some Tasmanian specimens reach 10 cm in height, the blades are slightly broader (5–8 mm), and the midrib becomes more heavily corticated below. Otherwise they are very similar in blade development and reproductive structures. Specimens from Pearson I., S. Aust., 22 m deep (Shepherd, 12.i.1969; AD, A34061) show unusual development of filaments of small rhizoidal cells lying over the blade cells out from the midrib. These specimens are relatively robust (branches 5–10 mm broad) and are provisionally placed under H. heterocystideum until better and fertile material is available. Similar rhizoidal cortication of the blade cells occurs in older blades of H. harveyanum (see below), but the Pearson I. specimens have the entire margin characteristic of H. heterocystideum rather than the regularly spinous margin of H. harveyanum.

H. heterocystideum is most closely related to the type species (H. woodwardii) of all the Australian species, but differs in that tetrasporangia are (in most plants) only occasionally produced from cortical cells and generally from cells of the second- and third-order rows, giving a more regular sorus than in H. woodwardii.

Two later species of J. Agardh are placed in synonymy with H. heterocystideum which, as shown above, is a rather variable species.

H. undulatum (J. Agardh) J. Agardh (lectotype in Herb. Agardh, LD, 31565) is based on a specimen of Harvey's Alg. Aust. Exsicc. 281B from King George Sound, W. Aust., distributed by Harvey as D. spathulata. The margin is undulate, as often occurs in H. heterocystideum.

H. marginatum J. Agardh (lectotype in Herb. Agardh, LD, 31636) is also based on a specimen of Harvey's Alg. Aust. Exsicc. 281A, from Fremantle, W. Aust., distributed as D. spathulata. This is a small specimen 2–3 cm high with rounded apices, growing on Posidonia and in all features it agrees well with H. heterocystideum.

D. spathulata Sonder was recorded from Brazil by several authors, but these records are now referred by Oliveira (1977, p. 121) to H. tenuifolium var. carolinianum Williams. Hypoglossum spathulatum has been recorded from the Red Sea (Nasr 1947, p. 145), the

Persian Gulf (Nizamuddin & Gessner 1970, p. 12), India (Børgesen 1932, p. 128) and Indonesia (Weber-van Bosse 1923, p. 389) but none of these references provides adequate detail to verify the species. The Weber-van Bosse specimens from Indonesia have recently been described as a new species, H. annae Wynne & De Clerck (2000: 118, figs 18–22).

"Delesseria crispa Sond.", listed by Harvey (1849a, p. 116), is based on Sonder (1848, p. 194) who remarked only that Del. spathulata had affinity with Delesseria crispa Zanardini.


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The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIID complete list of references.

Author: H. B. S. Womersley

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (24 February, 2003)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIID. Ceramiales – Delesseriaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodomelaceae
Reproduced with permission from The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIID 2003, by H.B.S. Womersley. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia.

Illustrations in Womersley Part IIIA, 2003: FIGS 15, 16B, C.

Figure 15 image

Figure 15   enlarge

Fig. 15. Hypoglossum heterocystideum (A, AD, A16442; B, AD, A8544; C, AD, A60012; D, E, AD, A26729; F, G, AD, A32133). A. Habit of robust plant. B. Habit of slender plant. C. Surface cortication of blade. D. Cystocarp. E. Spermatangial sorus. F. Tetrasporangial sorus. G. Tetrasporangial sorus with tetrasporangia cut off cells of second- and third-order rows. (A, B, D–F as in Womersley & Shepley 1982, courtesy of Aust. J. Bot.)

Figure 16 image

Figure 16   enlarge

Fig. 16. A. Hypoglossum revolutum (AD, A37017)). Cell lineages, cells of second-order rows stippled. B, C. Hypoglossum heterocystideum (AD, A32138). B. Juvenile blade. C. Cell lineages, mid blade. D. Hypoglossum harveyanum (AD, A49090). Cell lineages, mid blade. E. Hypoglossum armatum (AD, A49380). Cell lineages, mature blade. F. Hypoglossum protendens (AD, A42964). Cell lineages, mid blade. G, H. Hypoglossum dendroides (AD, A37557). G. Blade apex. H. Sectional views of apices and formation of transverse pericentral cells (as in Womersley & Shepley 1982, courtesy of Aust. J. Bot.).

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