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Hymenena endiviaefolia (Hooker & Harvey) Womersley, comb. nov.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Family Delesseriaceae


Delesseria endiviaefolia Hooker & Harvey 1847: 403. J. Agardh 1852: 697. Harvey 1849a: 115; 1859b: 312; 1863, synop.: xxxi. Kützing 1869: 4, pl. 11 c-e.

Nitophyllum endiviaefolium (Hooker & Harvey) J. Agardh 1872: 50; 1876: 461; 1898: 47. De Toni 1900: 637. Lucas 1909: 35; 1926: 599, pl. 39 fig. 3; 1929a: 19. Sonder 1880: 23. Tisdall 1898: 509. Wilson 1892: 174.

Hypoglossum endiviaefolium (Hooker & Harvey) Kützing 1849: 876.

Cryptopleura endiviaefolia (Hooker & Harvey) Kylin 1924: 91. Guiler 1952: 101. May 1965: 401. Shepherd & Womersley 1971: 166; 1981: 366. Womersley 1950: 184.

Thallus (Fig. 66C) medium red to dark red-brown, 5–15 cm high, much branched with lobed and convolute upper branches, developing midribs shortly below the apices, losing the wings below leaving compressed to terete axes to the main branches and main axis, 0.5–1.5 mm in diameter; upper branch lobes 0.7–1 mm broad with rounded apices; microscopic veins distinct on some branches, absent on others. Holdfast fibrous, 2–8 mm across; epilithic or epiphytic on larger algae (especially Acrocarpia). Structure. Growth marginal, without distinct apical cells, intercalary divisions frequent. Blade lobes monostromatic, 35–70 µm thick, cells ovoid, 20–30 µm across, L/D 1–2, soon becoming tristromatic with cortical cells equivalent to primary cells. Midrib (Fig. 66D) with several large central cells surrounded by a broad parenchymatous tissue of anticlinal rows of small cells. Veins one cell broad, cells longer than adjacent cells, often indistinct. Cells multinucleate; rhodoplasts discoid.

Reproduction: Reproductive organs borne on upper lobes of thallus. Gametophytes dioecious. Procarps scattered (Fig. 67A), the supporting cell bearing sterile groups and a 4-celled carpogonial branch (Fig. 67B). Carposporophytes (Fig. 67C) with a prominent basal fusion cell bearing much branched gonimoblast filaments with 2–4 terminal cells maturing, successively, into clavate to ovoid terminal carposporangia 20–45 µm in diameter. Cystocarps 1–1.5 mm across, swollen, with a domed ostiolar neck; pericarp 5–8 cells and 120–200 µm thick, cells in tiers, 12–15 thick at the domed neck. Spermatangial sori (Fig. 67D) on the lobes, ovate, 300–500 µm across and 90–150 µm thick, with the cortical cells dividing anticlinally into several initials which cut off groups of 3–5 elongate spermatangia (Fig. 67E).

Tetrasporangial sori (Fig. 67F, G) scattered, on monostromatic lobes, ovate, 350–600 µm across and 200–300 µm thick, with tetrasporangia in 2 layers (Fig. 67H), cut off from inner cortical cells with an outer layer of cover cells; tetrasporangia subspherical, 45–70 µm in diameter.

Type from Georgetown, Tas. (Gunn); lectotype in Herb. Hooker, BM.

Selected specimens: Pearson Is, S. Aust., 8 m deep (Shepherd, 7.i.1969; AD, A33673). Elliston, S. Aust., 11 m deep (Shepherd, 19.iv.1970; AD, A35862). Port Elliot, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 23.v.1953; AD, A18733). West Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., drift (Cruickshank, 26.i.1945; AD, A2626). Seal Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., drift (Woelkerling, 20.xi.1967; AD, A32192). Blackfellows Caves, SE S. Aust., drift (Loo, 3.xi.1997; AD, A67612). 1.3 km off Cape Northumberland, S. Aust., 15 m deep (Shepherd, 8.ii.1977; AD, A55260). Port MacDonnell, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 16.x.1985; AD, A57005 and 4.iv.1999; AD, A68086-"Marine Algae of southern Australia" No. 407); on Acrocarpia, drift (G. & R. Kraft, 9.vii.1994; MELU, K10323). Point Roadknight, Vic., drift (Womersley, 6.vi.1953; AD, A18803).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: Pearson Is, S. Aust., to Western Port, Vic., and the N coast of Tasmania.

Taxonomic notes: This species has been known mainly as Cryptopleura endiviaefolia.

Cryptopleura Kützing (1843, p. 444), based on C. lacerata (Gmelin) Kützing

C. ramosa (Hudson) Kylin ex Newton; see Maggs & Hommersand 1993, p. 246, figs 77, 78], is characterised by tetrasporangial (and sexual) sori usually formed on small marginal leaflets (see Maggs & Hommersand 1993, p. 246, figs 77, 78; Wynne 1999, p. 199). In contrast, Hymenena endiviaefolia has tetrasporangial sori borne on lobes of branches and appears better placed in Hymenena, where it is close to some forms of H. multipartita, differing in having a strongly developed midrib and convolute, lobed, lateral branches.


AGARDH, J.G. (1852). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 2, Part 2, pp. 337–720. (Gleerup: Lund.)

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AGARDH, J.G. (1876). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 3, Part 1 - Epicrisis systematis Floridearum, pp. i-vii, 1–724. (Weigel: Leipzig.)

AGARDH, J.G. (1898). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 3, Part 3 - De dispositione Delesseriearum. (Gleerup: Lund.)

DE TONI, G.B. (1900). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 4. Florideae. Sect. 2. pp. 387–776. (Padua.)

GUILER, E.R. (1952). The marine algae of Tasmania. Checklist with localities. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasmania 86, 71–106.

HARVEY, W.H. (1849a). Nereis Australis, pp. 65–124, Plates 26–50. (Reeve: London.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1859b). Algae. In Hooker, J.D., The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage. III. Flora Tasmaniae. Vol. II, pp. 282–343, Plates 185–196. (Reeve: London.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1863). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 5, Plates 241–300, synop., pp. i-lxxiii. (Reeve: London.)

HOOKER, J.D. & HARVEY, W.H. (1847). Algae Tasmanicae. Lond. J. Bot. 6, 397–417.

KÜTZING, F.T. (1843). Phycologia generalis. (Leipzig.)

KÜTZING, F.T. (1849). Species Algarum. (Leipzig.)

KÜTZING, F.T. (1869). Tabulae Phycologicae. Vol. 19. (Nordhausen.)

KYLIN, H. (1924). Studien über die Delesseriaceen. Lunds Univ. Årsskr. N.F. Avd. 2, 20(6), 1–111.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1909). Revised list of the Fucoideae and Florideae of Australia. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 34, 9–60.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1926). Notes on Australian marine algae. III. The Australian species of the genus Nitophyllum. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 51, 594–607, Plates 37–45.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1929a). The marine algae of Tasmania. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasm. 1928, 6–27.

MAGGS, C.A. & HOMMERSAND, M.H. (1993). Seaweeds of the British Isles. Vol. 1. Rhodophyta. Part 3A, Ceramiales. (HMSO: London.)

MAY, V. (1965). A census and key to the species of Rhodophyceae (red algae) recorded from Australia. Contr. N.S. W. Natl Herb. 3, 349–429.

SHEPHERD, S.A. & WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1971). Pearson Island Expedition 1969.-7. The subtidal ecology of benthic algae. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 95(3), 155–167.

SHEPHERD, S.A. & WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1981). The algal and seagrass ecology of Waterloo Bay, South Australia. Aquat. Bot. 11, 305–371.

SONDER, O.W. (1880). In Mueller, F., Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae. Supplementum ad volumen undecinum: Algae Australianae hactenus cognitae, pp. 1–42, 105–107. (Melbourne.)

TISDALL, H.T. (1898). The algae of Victoria. Rep. 7th Meet. Aust. Ass. Adv. Sci., Sydney, 1898, pp. 493–516.

WILSON, J.B. (1892). Catalogue of algae collected at or near Port Phillip Heads and Western Port. Proc. R. Soc. Viet. 4, 157–190.

WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1950). The marine algae of Kangaroo Island. III. List of Species 1. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 73, 137–197.

WYNNE, M.J. (1999). New records of benthic marine algae from the Sultanate of Oman. Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 22, 189–208.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIID complete list of references.

Author: H. B. S. Womersley

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (24 February, 2003)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIID. Ceramiales – Delesseriaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodomelaceae
Reproduced with permission from The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIID 2003, by H.B.S. Womersley. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia.

Illustrations in Womersley Part IIIA, 2003: FIGS 66C, D, 67.

Figure 66 image

Figure 66   enlarge

Fig. 66. A, B. Hymenena multipartita (AD, A60358). A. Branch with tetrasporangial sori. B. Transverse sections of tetrasporangial sorus and monostromatic blade. C, D. Hymenena endiviaefolia (AD, A68086). C. Habit. D. Transverse section of thallus.

Figure 67 image

Figure 67   enlarge

Fig. 67. Hymenena endiviaefolia (AD, A68086). A. Frond with scattered procarps. B. Procarp with carpogonial branch. C. Section of cystocarp. D. Branches with spermatangial sori. E. Transverse section of spermatangial sorus. F. Branch with tetrasporangial sori. G. Tetrasporangial sorus. H. Transverse section of tetrasporangial sorus.

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