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Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet

Hymenena affinis (Harvey) Kylin 1924: 79; 1929: 11, pl. 9 fig. 21.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Family Delesseriaceae

Selected citations: Guiler 1952: 101. Lucas & Perrin 1947: 223. May 1965: 401. Shepherd & Womersley 1981: 366. Silva et al. 1996: 457. Womersley 1966: 152.


Nitophyllum affine Harvey 1844b: 447; 1849a: 119; 1849b: 153; 1859b: 312; 1863, synop.: xxxii. J. Agardh 1852: 657; 1876: 456; 1898: 68. De Toni 1900: 652. DeToni & Forti 1923: 32. Hooker & Harvey 1847: 403. Lucas 1909: 35; 1926: 604, pl. 43 figs 1, 2; 1929a: 19; 1929b: 50. Lucas & Perrin 1947: 223, figs 87, 88. Reinbold 1897: 54; 1898: 47. Sonder 1880: 23. Tisdall 1898: 509. Wilson 1892: 174.

Aglaophyllum affine (Harvey) Kützing 1849: 869; 1869: 3, pl. 8.

Thallus (Fig. 64A) medium to dark red-brown, 8–20 (–25) cm high, much branched marginally and complanately with alternately pinnate lobes (2–) 4–8 mm broad, apices rounded, margins entire and flat, main lower axes 5–10 mm broad, only slightly thickened centrally and near the thallus base often 2–4 mm broad where wings are lost; microscopic veins slender. Holdfast fibrous, 2–10 mm across; epilithic, epiphytic or epizoic. Structure. Growth marginal, without obvious apical cells, marginal cells short, 6–10 µm across. Blades mostly monostromatic with some cells or small patches becoming 3 cells thick, 70–100 µm thick, cells angular to ovoid, 35–50 µm broad and L/D 1–1.5; central lower blade 300–450 µm and 13–19 cells thick, cells in anticlinal rows. Microscopic veins (Fig. 64B) mostly slender, one cell broad, cells 20–25 µm broad and L/D 1.5–3 (–5). Cells with discoid to elongate rhodoplasts.

Reproduction: Gametophytes dioecious. Procarps scattered on both sides of blades, usually with supporting (cortical) cells on both sides producing 2 sterile groups and a 4-celled carpogonial branch, surrounded by the pericarp initials. Carposporophytes (Fig. 64C) with a small to moderate basal fusion cell and a much branched gonimoblast, short-celled basally but larger-celled upwards, with clavate terminal carposporangia 25–45 µm in diameter, replaced from below. Cystocarps 1–1.5 mm across, bulging on both sides, especially the ostiole side; pericarp 130–250 µm and 4–7 cells thick (cells in anticlinal rows) with a short thick neck. Spermatangial sori (Fig. 64D) on apical lobes with the cortical cells dividing anticlinally to form a plate of initials (Fig. 64E), each of which cuts off 2–4 spermatangia.

Tetrasporangial sori (Fig. 64F) on upper lobes, ovate to irregular and often merging, 0.5–1.5 mm across, 180–320 µm thick, with 2 layers of tetrasporangia (Fig. 64G) cut off laterally from inner cortical cells which also bear the outer layer of cover cells; tetrasporangia subspherical, 50–75 µm in diameter.

Type from Georgetown, Tas. (Gunn 1272); lectotype, labelled "original specimen", in Herb. Harvey, TCD. (Gunn 1272 not located in 1952).

Selected specimens: Elliston Bay, S. Aust., 10–11 m deep (Shepherd, 20.x.1969; AD, A35011) and on Muellerena, 7 m deep (Shepherd, 22.v.1998; AD, A67902). 1.3 km off Cape Northumberland, S. Aust., 15 m deep (Shepherd, 9.ii.1977; AD, A55286). Sandringham, Port Phillip, Vic. (Lucas, Jan. 1900; AD, A1110). Crawfish Rock, Westernport Bay, Vic., 5–10 m deep (Watson, 10.xi.1968; AD, A33055) and 5 m and 6 m deep (Shepherd, 31.i.1970; AD, A35230 and A35261). Walkerville, Vic., drift (Sinkora A1554, 23.ii-9.iii.1972; AD, A42321). Bemm Reef, E Vic., 15–17 m deep (Foard & Kraft, 8.ii.2001; MELU). Georgetown, Tas., upper sublittoral (Womersley, 29.i.1949; AD, A10259). Piersons Point, Tinderbox, SE Tas., on sponge, 14 m deep (AIMS-NCI Q66C 5040-T, 13.ii.1991; AD, A61364). Fluted Cape, Bruny I., Tas., 10 m deep (Shepherd, 12.ii.1972; AD, A42029) and 16 m deep (Shepherd, 14.ii.1972; AD, A41850).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: Elliston, S. Aust., to Bemm Reef, E Vic., and around Tasmania.

Taxonomic notes: H. affinis has been recorded also from New Zealand (Kylin 1929, p. 11; Adams 1994, p. 305) and from Amsterdam I. and St Paul I. (see Silva et al. 1996, p. 457).

Hymenena affinis is closely related to H. multipartita, especially in the slender microscopic veins, differing essentially in habit having a broader thallus, especially basally, and less regular branching.

H. affinis is essentially an eastern species, frequent in Tasmania and Westernport Bay, Victoria, but it does extend westwards to Elliston Bay, S. Australia. It lacks the fairly distinct lower axis of H. curdieana and differs essentially from the latter in having slender microscopic veins mostly only one cell broad.


ADAMS, N.M. (1994). Seaweeds of New Zealand. (Cant. Univ. Press: Christchurch.)

AGARDH, J.G. (1852). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 2, Part 2, pp. 337–720. (Gleerup: Lund.)

AGARDH, J.G. (1876). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 3, Part 1 - Epicrisis systematis Floridearum, pp. i-vii, 1–724. (Weigel: Leipzig.)

AGARDH, J.G. (1898). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 3, Part 3 - De dispositione Delesseriearum. (Gleerup: Lund.)

DE TONI, G.B. (1900). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 4. Florideae. Sect. 2. pp. 387–776. (Padua.)

GUILER, E.R. (1952). The marine algae of Tasmania. Checklist with localities. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasmania 86, 71–106.

HARVEY, W.H. (1844b). Algae of Tasmania. Lond. J. Bot. 3, 428–454.

HARVEY, W.H. (1849a). Nereis Australis, pp. 65–124, Plates 26–50. (Reeve: London.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1849b). Algae of Tasmania. (cont.) Tasmanian Journal of Nat. Sci., Agric. Stats. etc. 3, 54–61, 153–159, 209.

HARVEY, W.H. (1859b). Algae. In Hooker, J.D., The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage. III. Flora Tasmaniae. Vol. II, pp. 282–343, Plates 185–196. (Reeve: London.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1863). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 5, Plates 241–300, synop., pp. i-lxxiii. (Reeve: London.)

HOOKER, J.D. & HARVEY, W.H. (1847). Algae Tasmanicae. Lond. J. Bot. 6, 397–417.

KÜTZING, F.T. (1849). Species Algarum. (Leipzig.)

KÜTZING, F.T. (1869). Tabulae Phycologicae. Vol. 19. (Nordhausen.)

KYLIN, H. (1924). Studien über die Delesseriaceen. Lunds Univ. Årsskr. N.F. Avd. 2, 20(6), 1–111.

KYLIN, H. (1929). Die Delesseriaceen Neu-seelands. Lunds Univ. Årsskr. N.F. Avd. 2, 25(2), 1–15, Plates 1–12.

LUCAS, A.H.S. & PERRIN, F. (1947). The Seaweeds of South Australia. Part 2. The Red Seaweeds. (Govt Printer: Adelaide.)

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1909). Revised list of the Fucoideae and Florideae of Australia. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 34, 9–60.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1926). Notes on Australian marine algae. III. The Australian species of the genus Nitophyllum. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 51, 594–607, Plates 37–45.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1929a). The marine algae of Tasmania. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasm. 1928, 6–27.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1929b). A census of the marine algae of South Australia. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 53, 45–53.

MAY, V. (1965). A census and key to the species of Rhodophyceae (red algae) recorded from Australia. Contr. N.S. W. Natl Herb. 3, 349–429.

REINBOLD, T. (1897). Die Algen der Lacepede und Guichen Bay und deren náherer Umgebung (Slid Australien), gesammelt von Dr. A. Engelhart-Kingston. Nuova Notarisia 8, 41–62.

REINBOLD, T. (1898). Die Algen der Lacepede und Guichen Bay (Süd Australien) und deren näherer Umgebung, gesammelt von Dr. A. Engelhart-Kingston. II. Nuova Notarisia 9, 33–54.

SHEPHERD, S.A. & WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1981). The algal and seagrass ecology of Waterloo Bay, South Australia. Aquat. Bot. 11, 305–371.

SILVA, P.C., BASSON, P.W. & MOE, R.L. (1996). Catalogue of the Benthic Marine Algae of the Indian Ocean. (Univ. California Press: Berkeley.)

SONDER, O.W. (1880). In Mueller, F., Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae. Supplementum ad volumen undecinum: Algae Australianae hactenus cognitae, pp. 1–42, 105–107. (Melbourne.)

TISDALL, H.T. (1898). The algae of Victoria. Rep. 7th Meet. Aust. Ass. Adv. Sci., Sydney, 1898, pp. 493–516.

WILSON, J.B. (1892). Catalogue of algae collected at or near Port Phillip Heads and Western Port. Proc. R. Soc. Viet. 4, 157–190.

WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1966). Port Phillip survey, 1957–1963: Algae. Mem. natl. Mus., Vict. No. 27, 133–156.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIID complete list of references.

Author: H. B. S. Womersley

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (24 February, 2003)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIID. Ceramiales – Delesseriaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodomelaceae
Reproduced with permission from The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIID 2003, by H.B.S. Womersley. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia.

Illustration in Womersley Part IIIA, 2003: FIG. 64.

Figure 64 image

Figure 64   enlarge

Fig. 64. Hymenena affinis (A, D–G, AD, A35261; B, C, AD, A4I850). A. Habit. B. Slender veins (1 cell broad). C. Section of cystocarp. D. Branch with spermatangial sori. E. Transverse section of spermatangial sorus. F. Tetrasporangial sori. G. Transverse section of tetrasporangial sorus.

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