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Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet

Haraldiophyllum erosum (Harvey) Millar & Huisman 1996a: 62, figs 1–14.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Family Delesseriaceae

Selected citations: Huisman 1997: 201.


Nitophyllum erosum Harvey 1859a: pl. 94; 1863, synop.: xxxi. J. Agardh 1872: 50; 1876: 460; 1898: 50. De Toni 1900: 639. De Toni & Forti 1923: 33. Lucas 1909: 35; 1926: 600; 1929b: 50. Lucas & Perrin 1947: 219, 221, fig. 85. Mazza 1926: No. 862. Reinbold 1898: 46. Sonder 1880: 23. Tate 1882a: 20. Tisdall 1898: 509. Wilson 1892: 174.

Aglaophyllum erosum (Harvey) Kützing 1869: 2, p1. 6c, d.

Scutarius erosus (Harvey) Kuntze 1891: 920.

Myriogramme erosa (Harvey) Kylin 1924: 61. Huisman & Walker 1990: 431. May 1965: 400. Silva et al. 1996: 461. Shepherd & Womersley 1981: 366. Womersley 1950: 184.

Nitophyllum fimbriatum Harvey 1855a: 549, nomen illegit. [NON Greville 1833: 447.]

Thallus (Fig. 58A) medium to dark red to red-brown, 5–13 cm high, subdichotomously to laterally complanately branched with branches 6–12 mm broad, reaching 25 mm broad at branchings; margins fringed with multicellular branched spinous processes (Fig. 58B, C) 200–600 µm long, corticated basally, each with a single apical cell; midribs and veins absent. Holdfast discoid, with a short stipe; epilithic or epiphytic. Structure. Growth marginal but vague (Fig. 58C), with intercalary divisions, blades monostromatic and 25–60 µm thick apart from the base and reproductive areas, cells 25–35 across and L/D 1–2 (–4).

Reproduction: Gametophytes dioecious. Procarps scattered over both surfaces, with primary cells cutting off 2 cells on each surface, becoming fertile on one side only with the distal cell developing as a cover cell group (Fig. 58D) and the proximal cell acting as a supporting cell which produces a distal sterile cell and a 4-celled carpogonial branch, followed by a second sterile cell from the supporting cell. Carposporophytes (Fig. 58F, G) with a basal fusion cell incorporating gametophytic cells on the cystocarp base, much branched gonimoblast and clavate to ovoid terminal carposporangia 20–35 µm in diameter. Cystocarps (Fig. 58E) 0.6–1.5 mm in diameter, swollen to hemispherical, ostiolate; pericarp 60–200 µm and 6–7 cells thick, bearing branched processes in the ostiolar side. Spermatangial sori (Fig. 59A) elongate, on both surfaces, with the primary cells producing cortical cells which divide anticlinally to 4 initials, each producing several spermatangia.

Tetrasporangial sori (Fig. 59B) ovate, scattered, 200–600 µm across and 90–130 thick, with 2 layers (Fig. 59C) of tetrasporangia cut off from inner cortical cells which also produce the outer layer of cover cells; tetrasporangia subspherical, 35–60 µm in diameter.

Type from Garden I., W. Aust., lectotype in Herb. Harvey, TCD (Clifton) bearing Harvey's name.

Selected specimens: (see also Millar & Huisman 1996, p. 64): Pearson I., S. Aust., 20–23 m deep (Shepherd & Turner, 29.i i i.1982; AD, A53047). Ell i ston, S. Aust., drift ( Womersley, 13.i.1951; AD, A13566) and on Euptilota, 17 m deep (Shepherd, 12.v.1971; AD, A38681). Stenhouse Bay, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 9.iv.1950; AD, A16092). Oedipus Point, West I., S. Aust., 26–30 m deep (Shepherd, 5.ii.1967; AD, A32382). West Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 6.i.1946; AD, A3212). Cape du Couedic, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 13.i.1947; AD, A4185). 12 km S of Vivonne Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., 50–70 m deep (Latz, 24.xi.1968; AD, A33011). Seal Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., drift (Mitchell, 22.xi.1968; AD, A32951). Robe, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 29.viii.1949; AD, A10911). Stinky Bay, Nora Creina, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 19.viii.1957; AD, A21270 and 3.iv.1999; AD, A68070). Port MacDonnell, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 28.i.1964; AD, A27399). Warrnambool, Vic., drift (G. & R. Kraft 10400, 2.i.1995; MELU and AD, A68252). Queenscliff, Vic., drift (Norris, 21.i.1963; AD, A25787).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: Houtman Abrolhos, W. Aust., to Western Port, Victoria (Millar & Huisman 1996, p. 64).


AGARDH, J.G. (1872). Bidrag till Florideernes Systematik. Acta Univ. Lund 8, 1–60.

AGARDH, J.G. (1876). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 3, Part 1 - Epicrisis systematis Floridearum, pp. i-vii, 1–724. (Weigel: Leipzig.)

AGARDH, J.G. (1898). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 3, Part 3 - De dispositione Delesseriearum. (Gleerup: Lund.)

DE TONI, G.B. & FORTI, A. (1923). Alghe di Australia, Tasmania e Nouva Zelanda. Mem. R. Inst. Veneto Sci., Lett. Arti 29, 1–183, Plates 1–10.

DE TONI, G.B. (1900). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 4. Florideae. Sect. 2. pp. 387–776. (Padua.)

GREVILLE, R.K. (1833). In A.F.C.P. de St-Hilaire, "Voyage dans le district des diamans et sur le littoral du Brésil ... (Paris). 2 vols.

HARVEY, W.H. (1855a). Some account of the marine botany of the colony of Western Australia. Trans. R. Jr. Acad. 22, 525–566.

HARVEY, W.H. (1859a). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 2, Plates 61–120. (Reeve: London.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1863). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 5, Plates 241–300, synop., pp. i-lxxiii. (Reeve: London.)

HUISMAN, J.M. & WALKER, D.I. (1990). A catalogue of the marine plants of Rottnest Island, Western Australia, with notes on their distribution and biogeography. Kingia 1, 349–459.

HUISMAN, J.M. (1997). Marine Benthic Algae of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia. In Wells, F.E. (Ed.) The Marine Flora and Fauna of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia, pp. 177–237. (W. Aust. Museum: Perth.)

KÜTZING, F.T. (1869). Tabulae Phycologicae. Vol. 19. (Nordhausen.)

KUNTZE, O. (1891). Revisio generum Plantarum. Part II. 4. Algae, pp. 877–930. (Leipzig.)

KYLIN, H. (1924). Studien über die Delesseriaceen. Lunds Univ. Årsskr. N.F. Avd. 2, 20(6), 1–111.

LUCAS, A.H.S. & PERRIN, F. (1947). The Seaweeds of South Australia. Part 2. The Red Seaweeds. (Govt Printer: Adelaide.)

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1909). Revised list of the Fucoideae and Florideae of Australia. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 34, 9–60.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1926). Notes on Australian marine algae. III. The Australian species of the genus Nitophyllum. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 51, 594–607, Plates 37–45.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1929b). A census of the marine algae of South Australia. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 53, 45–53.

MAY, V. (1965). A census and key to the species of Rhodophyceae (red algae) recorded from Australia. Contr. N.S. W. Natl Herb. 3, 349–429.

MAZZA, A. (1926). Saggio di Algologia Oceanica. Nuova Notarisia Nos. 779–810 & 811–925 privately printed.

MILLAR, A.J.K. & HUISMAN, J.M. (1996a). Haraldiophyllum erosum comb. nov. (Delesseriaceae, Rhodophyta) from southern and Western Australia. Aust. Syst. Bot. 9, 61–69.

REINBOLD, T. (1898). Die Algen der Lacepede und Guichen Bay (Süd Australien) und deren näherer Umgebung, gesammelt von Dr. A. Engelhart-Kingston. II. Nuova Notarisia 9, 33–54.

SHEPHERD, S.A. & WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1981). The algal and seagrass ecology of Waterloo Bay, South Australia. Aquat. Bot. 11, 305–371.

SILVA, P.C., BASSON, P.W. & MOE, R.L. (1996). Catalogue of the Benthic Marine Algae of the Indian Ocean. (Univ. California Press: Berkeley.)

SONDER, O.W. (1880). In Mueller, F., Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae. Supplementum ad volumen undecinum: Algae Australianae hactenus cognitae, pp. 1–42, 105–107. (Melbourne.)

TATE, R. (1882a). A list of the charas, mosses, liverworts, lichens, fungs, and algals of extratropical South Australia. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 4, 5–24.

TISDALL, H.T. (1898). The algae of Victoria. Rep. 7th Meet. Aust. Ass. Adv. Sci., Sydney, 1898, pp. 493–516.

WILSON, J.B. (1892). Catalogue of algae collected at or near Port Phillip Heads and Western Port. Proc. R. Soc. Viet. 4, 157–190.

WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1950). The marine algae of Kangaroo Island. III. List of Species 1. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 73, 137–197.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIID complete list of references.

Author: H. B. S. Womersley

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (24 February, 2003)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIID. Ceramiales – Delesseriaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodomelaceae
Reproduced with permission from The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIID 2003, by H.B.S. Womersley. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia.

Illustrations in Womersley Part IIIA, 2003: FIGS 58, 59 A–C.

Figure 58 image

Figure 58   enlarge

Fig. 58. Haraldiophyllum erosum (A, AD, A32951; B, E–G, AD, A27399; C, AD, A33011; D, AD, A13566). A. Habit. B. Branch with marginal tufts of spines and cystocarps. C. Marginal apex with spines. D. Procarps, with cover cells overlying the carpogonial branch. E. A cystocarp. F. Cross section of a cystocarp. G. Carposporophyte with terminal carposporangia.

Figure 59 image

Figure 59   enlarge

Fig. 59. A–C. Haraldiophyllum erosum (A, AD, A33011; B,C, AD, A68070). A. Spermatangial sori. B. Tetrasporangial sori. C. Transverse section of a tetrasporangial sorus. D, E. Haraldiophyllum nottii (AD, A46142). D. A tetrasporangial sorus. E. Transverse section of a tetrasporangial sorus.

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