Electronic Flora of South Australia
Electronic Flora of South Australia
Census of SA Plants, Algae & Fungi
Identification tools

Electronic Flora of South Australia Genus Fact Sheet

Genus HARALDIA J. Feldmann 1939: 5, figs 1–3.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Family Delesseriaceae

Thallus slender, complanately and irregularly marginally branched, branches flat, more or less linear, margins usually spinose; holdfast uncertain. Structure. Growth from terminal and marginal apical cells which segment transversely, the derivative cells dividing laterally with frequent intercalary divisions but without clear axial cells or lateral rows, the blades monostromatic with irregular cell arrangement in surface view; cells relatively large, multinucleate.

Reproduction: Gametophytes probably dioecious (but not well known). Procarps scattered, undescribed except for H. australica (see below) which has a cover cell group, a 4-celled carpogonial branch and a sterile group, carposporophytes with a basal fusion cell, moderately branched gonimoblast and large terminal carposporangia, and ostiolate hemispherical cystocarps with a thin, large-celled, pericarp. Spermatangial sori (in the type) scattered, inadequately described.

Tetrasporangial sori scattered, mostly centrally on the branches, ovate to elongate, with tetrasporangia probably in 2 layers (in the type) or in one layer (in H. australica), covered by outer cortical cells.

Type species: H. lenormandii (Derbês & Solier) J. Feldmann 1939: 5.

Taxonomic notes: A genus of 3 species, the type, H. tenuis Oliveira (1969, p. 97) from Brazil, and a newly described species, H. australica, from Kangaroo Island. Haraldia prostrata Dawson et al. (1960, p. 25) from Baja California, was transferred by Wynne (1990, p. 330) to Myriogramme. Reproductive features of the type species are poorly known, especially the gametophytic plants, but the thallus structure with terminal and lateral apical cells segmenting transversely to give an irregularly arranged monostromatic blade lacking any veins appears characteristic.


DAWSON, E.Y., NEUSHUL, M. & WILDMAN, R.D. (1960). New records of sublittoral marine plants from Pacific Baja California. Pacific Nat. 1(19), 3–30.

FELDMANN, J. (1939). Haraldia, nouveau genre de Delesseriacées. Bot. Notiser 1939, 1–6.

OLIVEIRA FILHO, E.C. de (1969). Algas marinhas do sul do estabo do Espirito Santo (Brasil). I.-Ceramiales. Univ. Sao Paulo, Fac. Filosofia, Ciências e Letras, Bull. 343 (Bot. 26).

WYNNE, M.J. (1990). Observations on Haraldia and Calloseris, two rare genera of Delesseriaceae (Rhodophyta) from the western Atlantic. Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 17, 327–334.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIID complete list of references.

Author: H. B. S. Womersley

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (24 February, 2003)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIID. Ceramiales – Delesseriaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodomelaceae
Reproduced with permission from The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIID 2003, by H.B.S. Womersley. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia.

Disclaimer Copyright Disclaimer Copyright Email Contact:
State Herbarium of South Australia
Government of South Australia Government of South Australia Government of South Australia Department for Environment and Water