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Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet

Echinothamnion hookeri (Harvey) Kylin ex Silva in Silva et al. 1996: 492; Kylin 1956: 506.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Family Rhodomelaceae – Tribe Polysiphonieae

Selected citations: May 1965: 383. Shepherd & Womersley 1981: 367.


Polysiphonia hookeri Harvey 1847: 40, pl. xii; 1859b: 299; 1863, synop.: xix. J. Agardh 1863: 1019; 1896: 110. De Toni 1903: 905. Falkenberg 1901: 141. Guiler 1952: 103. Hooker & Harvey 1847: 398. Kützing 1849: 832; 1864: 6, pl. 17. Lucas 1909: 41; 1929a: 22; 1929b: 51. Lucas & Perrin 1947: 263. Reinbold 1897: 57. Segi 1966: 509, pl. XIVB. Sonder 1853: 701; 1855: 524; 1880: 34. Tisdall 1898: 514. Wilson 1892: 167. Womersley 1950: 185.

Polysiphonia acanthophora Harvey 1844b: 441; 1849b: 56 (NON Kützing 1843: 424).

Polysiphonia mallardiae sensu Australian specimens (NON Harvey in Hooker & Harvey 1845b: 533 from New Zealand). J. Agardh 1863: 1020. De Toni 1903: 908; 1924: 397. Falkenberg 1901: 142. Guiler 1952: 103. Harvey 1847: 40, pl. xiii; 1855a: 539; 1859b: 299; 1863, synop.: xix. Huisman 2000: 165. Kützing 1849: 834; 1864: 8, pl. 22 c-c. Lucas 1909: 41; 1929a: 22; 1929b: 51. Lucas & Perrin 1947: 265. Reinbold 1898: 51. Segi 1966: 510, pl. XVIA? Silva et al. 1996: 492. Sonder 1880: 34. Tisdall 1898: 514. Wilson 1892: 167. Womersley 1950: 185.

Polysiphonia lyallii sensu Tisdall 1898: 514. Wilson 1892: 167.

Echinothamnion mallardiae (Harvey) Kylin sensu May 1965: 383.

Rhodomela mallardiae Harvey, footnote only in Hooker & Harvey 1845b: 333. ?Polysiphonia dasyoides Zanardini 1874: 489. De Toni 1903: 954. Lucas 1929a: 22. Lucas & Perrin 1947: 266.

Thallus (Fig. 95A) dark brown-red, erect, 10–30 cm (-2 m) high, with radial, indeterminate, terete, heavily corticated branches for 3–4 orders, clothed with short tufts of ecorticate determinate laterals 2–4 (–5) mm long. Axes usually denuded basally, 1–2 (–3) mm in diameter below, tapering gradually to 200–400 µm in diameter near apices. Holdfast fibrous, 2–10 mm across; epilithic or epiphytic. Structure. Apical cells hemispherical, 8–10 µm in diameter, producing 4 pericentral cells (Fig. 95B) and determinate branches close to apices, spirally arranged. Cortication of indeterminate branches commences close to apices, the pericentral cells remaining conspicuous in section, outer cortical cells irregularly elongate, L/D 2–4. Determinate laterals first simple, 1–2 mm long, soon branched from near their base, lesser branches 0.2–1 mm long, 40–90 µm in diameter, tapering near their tips; segments L/D (0.5–) 0.8–2. Trichoblasts mainly on branches of determinate tufts, 0.2–1 mm long, branched, soon caducous, with scar cells on each segment in a 1/4 spiral. Cells mostly uninucleate; rhodoplasts discoid to elongate.

Reproduction: Gametophytes dioecious. Procarps on trichoblasts on determinate lateral branches, with a pre-fertilization pericarp. Carposporophytes with a small basal fusion cell and short gonimoblast filaments bearing elongate-ovoid terminal carposporangia 45–75 µm in diameter. Cystocarps (Fig. 95C) usually urceolate with a short neck and a distinct short basal stalk, 500–750 µm in diameter; pericarp ostiolate, 2 cells thick, outer cells isodiametric and angular. Spermatangial branches (Fig. 95D) replacing trichoblasts, with a sterile basal cell, elongate-ovoid, 90–180 µm long and 25–70 µm in diameter.

Tetrasporangia (Fig. 95E, F) in branches of the determinate tufts, few to a series per branch, single per segment and bulging the segments, 75–110 µm in diameter.

Type from Georgetown, Tas. (Gunn); holotype in Herb. Harvey, TCD (Gunn 1297, as P. acanthophora).

Selected specimens: Middleton Beach, Albany, W. Aust., drift (Wood, 10.x.1960; AD, A24566). Elliston Bay, S. Aust., 10–12 m deep in centre of bay (Shepherd, 23.x.1969; AD, A34939). Avoid Bay, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 30.xi.1975; AD, A46835). NE side Wedge I., S. Aust., 5 m deep (Baldock, 28.xii.1963; AD, A27332). Fitzgerald Bay, Point Lowly, S. Aust., on artificial tyre reef, 14 m deep (Branders, 13.ix.1987; AD, A59334). Off St Kilda, S. Aust., 6 m deep (S. Lewis, 4.ix.1972; AD, A42755). The Bluff, Victor Harbor, S. Aust., 8 m deep (Clarke, 16.vii.1982; AD, A60717). Muston, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., 2–3 m deep (Womersley, 21.xi.1968; AD, A32945). Vivonne Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 1.i.2000; AD, A68403). Seal Beach, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 21.i.1965; AD, A28695). Pennington Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 7.i.1948; AD, A6697). Cape Jaffa, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 25.iv.2000; AD, A68505). Robe, S. Aust., on Amphibolis antarctica, 2 m deep (Kildea, 25.x.1996; AD, A67092). Port MacDonnell, S. Aust., drift in harbour (Womersley, 29.ix.1996; AD, A66630). Flinders, Vic., drift (Womersley, 25.x.1986; AD, A57844). San Remo back beach, Vic., drift (Sinkora A1980, 27.xi to 5.xii.1974; AD, A62712). North Walkerville, Waratah Bay, Vic., drift (Sinkora A1663, 23.ii to 9.iii.1972; AD, A43264). Rocky Cape, Tas., drift (Gordon, 18.i.1966; AD, A29963). Port Sorell, Tas., drift (Womersley, 9.xi.1982; AD, A56234). Taroona, Tas., drift (Westphalen, 31.i.1997; AD, A66912). Bruny I. (opposite Gordon), Tas., 2–3 m deep (Brown, 10.x.1986; AD, A57833).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: Albany, W. Aust., to Walkerville, Vic., and around Tasmania.

Taxonomic notes: E. hookeri differs from E. hystrix essentially in habit, having several orders of indeterminate branches compared to the irregular branches of the latter.


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DE TONI, G.B. (1903). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 4. Florideae. Sect. 3. pp. 775–1521 + 1523–1525. (Padua.)

DE TONI, G.B. (1924). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 6. Florideae. (Padua.)

FALKENBERG, P. (1901). Die Rhodomelaceen des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-abschnitte. Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel. Monogr. 26. (Friedländer: Berlin.)

GUILER, E.R. (1952). The marine algae of Tasmania. Checklist with localities. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasmania 86, 71–106.

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HARVEY, W.H. (1849b). Algae of Tasmania. (cont.) Tasmanian Journal of Nat. Sci., Agric. Stats. etc. 3, 54–61, 153–159, 209.

HOOKER, J.D. & HARVEY, W.H. (1845b). Algae Novae Zelandiae. Lund. J. Bot. 4, 521–551.

HOOKER, J.D. & HARVEY, W.H. (1847). Algae Tasmanicae. Lond. J. Bot. 6, 397–417.

HUISMAN, J.M. (2000). Marine Plants of Australia. (Univ. W. Aust. Press, Nedlands, W. Aust. & ABRS, Canberra, A.C.T.)

KÜTZING, F.T. (1849). Species Algarum. (Leipzig.)

KÜTZING, F.T. (1864). Tabulae Phycologicae. Vol. 14. (Nordhausen.)

LUCAS, A.H.S. & PERRIN, F. (1947). The Seaweeds of South Australia. Part 2. The Red Seaweeds. (Govt Printer: Adelaide.)

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MAY, V. (1965). A census and key to the species of Rhodophyceae (red algae) recorded from Australia. Contr. N.S. W. Natl Herb. 3, 349–429.

REINBOLD, T. (1897). Die Algen der Lacepede und Guichen Bay und deren náherer Umgebung (Slid Australien), gesammelt von Dr. A. Engelhart-Kingston. Nuova Notarisia 8, 41–62.

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SEGI, T. (1966). The type or authentic specimens of Polysiphonia in Europe. Rep. Fac. Fish., Prefect. Univ. Mie 5, 503–516, Plates 1–25.

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SILVA, P.C., BASSON, P.W. & MOE, R.L. (1996). Catalogue of the Benthic Marine Algae of the Indian Ocean. (Univ. California Press: Berkeley.)

SONDER, O.W. (1853). Plantae Muellerianae. Algae. Linnaea 25, 657–709.

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ZANARDINI, J. (1874). Phyceae Australicae novae vel minus cognitae. Flora 57, 486–490, 497–505.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIID complete list of references.

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (24 February, 2003)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIID. Ceramiales – Delesseriaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodomelaceae
Reproduced with permission from The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIID 2003, by H.B.S. Womersley. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia.

Illustration in Womersley Part IIIA, 2003: FIG. 95.

Figure 95 image

Figure 95   enlarge

Fig. 95. Echinothamnion hookeri (A, C, D, AD, A68403; B, AD, A67092; E, AD, A32945; F, G, AD, A68505). A. Habit. B. Transverse section of indeterminate axis. C. Cystocarps on determinate laterals. D. Spermatangial branches on determinate laterals. E. Determinate laterals with tetrasporangia. F. Tetrasporangia in determinate laterals.

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