Electronic Flora of South Australia
Electronic Flora of South Australia
Census of SA Plants, Algae & Fungi
Identification tools

Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet

Diplocladia patersonis (Sonder) Kylin 1956: 504.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Family Rhodomelaceae – Tribe Polysiphonieae

Selected citations: Beanland & Woelkerling 1982: 98. Davey & Woelkerling 1980: 59. May 1965: 383.


Polysiphonia patersonis Sonder 1855: 525; 1880: 35. Guiler 1952: 103. Harvey 1863: synop. xxi. Kützing 1864: 6, pl. 18 d-f. Tisdall 1898: 514. Womersley 1950: 185.

Brongniartella? patersonis (Sonder) De Toni 1903: 1011. Lucas 1909: 43; 1929a: 22. Lucas & Perrin 1947: 283.

Polysiphonia spinosissima Harvey 1859b: 301; 1860, pl. 155. J. Agardh 1863: 1045. Kützing 1864: 16, pl. 45 c-e. Tisdall 1898: 514. Wilson 1892: 167.

Brongniartella spinosissima (Harvey) Falkenberg 1901: 548, pl. 19 figs 11, 12.

Thallus (Fig. 96A) dark brown-red to yellow-red, drying darker, erect, much branched with main axes bearing long laterals for 4–5 orders, arising from prostrate branches, and bearing radially relatively determinate lateral branchlets (Fig. 96B); all branches ecorticate. Attachment by rhizoids; epilithic or on shells. Structure. Apices with dome-shaped apical cells, cutting off 7 pericentral cells close to apices, with determinate laterals (Fig. 96B) arising spirally (usually at about 1/4 divergence), first simple, later branching 3–4 times and developing further apically but remaining limited in development; laterals (0.2–) 0.5–1 (–1.5) mm long, 70–150 µm in diameter with segments L/D 0.2–0.5. Axes 200–400 µm in diameter, segments L/D 0.2–0.5. Trichoblasts prominent on branches of determinate laterals, (0.4–) 1–1.5 mm long, lower cells 30–50 µm in diameter and L/D (2–) 6–15. Rhizoids 25–60 µm in diameter with digitate haptera usually cut off from pericentral cells. Rhodoplasts discoid.

Reproduction: Gametophytes dioecious. Carposporophytes with a small basal fusion cell and branched gonimoblast with elongate-clavate terminal carposporangia 25–35 µm in diameter. Cystocarps (Fig. 96C) ovoid, 300–500 µm in diameter, sessile or short-stalked; pericarp ostiolate, with a slight neck, 2 cells thick with a slight cortex on lower parts. Spermatangial branches (Fig. 96D) replacing whole trichoblast, with a sterile basal cell 40–100 µm long but no sterile apical cells, 100–150 µm long and 50–90 µm in diameter, often slightly curved.

Tetrasporangial branches (Fig. 96E) 0.7–1.5 mm long, simple or branched, with slightly undulate margins, 100–200 in diameter, tetrasporangia one per segment, spirally arranged, 40–80 µm in diameter.

Type from Cape Paterson, Vic. (Mueller, June 1853), lectotype in MEL, 45872, isolectotypes 45873–45875, 538237, 538238.

Selected specimens: Venus Bay, S. Aust., low eulittoral on flats (Womersley, 17.i.1951; AD, A13761). Point Drummond, S. Aust., sheltered pool (Womersley, 1 1.i.1951; AD, A15023). Kellidie Bay, Coffin Bay, S. Aust., lower eulittoral (Womersley, 13.v.1968; AD, A32514-"Marine Algae of southern Australia" No. 123). Spalding Cove, Port Lincoln, S. Aust., lower eulittoral (Womersley, 25.viii.1975; AD, A46504). Aldinga, S. Aust., reef pools (Womersley, 12.vii.1968; AD, A32545). American R. inlet, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., lower eulittoral (Womersley, 26.viii.1948; AD, A8695) and 2–4 m deep near Muston (Womersley, 22.viii.1963; AD, A26887). Robe, S. Aust., low eulittoral (Womersley, 27.viii.1949; AD, A11074). Port MacDonnell, S. Aust., uppermost sublittoral pools at "Wagon Wheels" (Womersley, 23.iv.2000; AD, A68520-"Marine Algae of southern Australia" No. 123a). Point Lonsdale, Vic., in large mid eulittoral pool (Sinkora A2441, 22.iv.1978; AD, A60885). Shoreham, Westernport Bay, Vic., at low tide level (Sinkora A1358, 29.x.1971; MEL 504878; AD, A49481). Walkerville, Vic., in rockpools (Sinkora A1815, 4.xii.1973; AD, A53516). Low Head, Tas. (Cribb 73.14, 15.ix.1950; AD, A16289).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: Venus Bay, S. Aust., to Walkerville, Vic., and N coast of Tasmania.

Taxonomic notes: D. patersonis usually occurs in shallow water on tidal flats, occasionally under moderate water movement.

Brongniartella spinosissima was recorded by Papenfuss (1964b, p. 59) from the Auckland Is, based on a Rabenhorst record which is almost certainly incorrect.


AGARDH, J.G. (1863). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 2, Part 3, pp. 787–1291. (Gleerup: Lund.)

BEANLAND, W.R. & WOELKERLING, W.J. (1982). Studies on Australian mangrove algae: IT. Composition and geographical distribution of communities in Spencer Gulf, South Australia. Proc. R. Soc. Vict. 94, 89–106.

DAVEY, A. & WOELKERLING, W.J. (1980). Studies on Australian mangrove algae. I. Victorian communities: Composition and geographic distribution. Proc. R. Soc. Vict. 91, 53–66.

DE TONI, G.B. (1903). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 4. Florideae. Sect. 3. pp. 775–1521 + 1523–1525. (Padua.)

FALKENBERG, P. (1901). Die Rhodomelaceen des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-abschnitte. Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel. Monogr. 26. (Friedländer: Berlin.)

GUILER, E.R. (1952). The marine algae of Tasmania. Checklist with localities. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasmania 86, 71–106.

HARVEY, W.H. (1859b). Algae. In Hooker, J.D., The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage. III. Flora Tasmaniae. Vol. II, pp. 282–343, Plates 185–196. (Reeve: London.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1860). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 3, Plates 121–180. (Reeve: London.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1863). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 5, Plates 241–300, synop., pp. i-lxxiii. (Reeve: London.)

KÜTZING, F.T. (1864). Tabulae Phycologicae. Vol. 14. (Nordhausen.)

KYLIN, H. (1956). Die Gattungen der Rhodophyceen. (Gleerups: Lund.)

LUCAS, A.H.S. & PERRIN, F. (1947). The Seaweeds of South Australia. Part 2. The Red Seaweeds. (Govt Printer: Adelaide.)

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1909). Revised list of the Fucoideae and Florideae of Australia. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 34, 9–60.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1929a). The marine algae of Tasmania. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasm. 1928, 6–27.

MAY, V. (1965). A census and key to the species of Rhodophyceae (red algae) recorded from Australia. Contr. N.S. W. Natl Herb. 3, 349–429.

PAPENFUSS, G.F. (1964b). Catalogue and bibliography of antarctic and subantarctic benthic marine algae. Am. geophys. Un. Antarctic Res. Ser., Vol. 1, pp. 1–76.

SONDER, O.W. (1855). Algae annis 1852 et 1853 collectae. Linnaea 26, 506–528.

SONDER, O.W. (1880). In Mueller, F., Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae. Supplementum ad volumen undecinum: Algae Australianae hactenus cognitae, pp. 1–42, 105–107. (Melbourne.)

TISDALL, H.T. (1898). The algae of Victoria. Rep. 7th Meet. Aust. Ass. Adv. Sci., Sydney, 1898, pp. 493–516.

WILSON, J.B. (1892). Catalogue of algae collected at or near Port Phillip Heads and Western Port. Proc. R. Soc. Viet. 4, 157–190.

WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1950). The marine algae of Kangaroo Island. III. List of Species 1. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 73, 137–197.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIID complete list of references.

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (24 February, 2003)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIID. Ceramiales – Delesseriaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodomelaceae
Reproduced with permission from The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIID 2003, by H.B.S. Womersley. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia.

Illustration in Womersley Part IIIA, 2003: FIG. 96.

Figure 96 image

Figure 96   enlarge

Fig. 96. Diplocladia patersonis (A, AD, A8695; B, E, AD, A68520; C, D, AD, A32514). A. Habit. B. indeterminate axes with short, determinate laterals. C. Cystocarps and carposporophytes. D. Spermatangial branches on determinate laterals. E. Tetrasporangia in branches of determinate laterals.

Disclaimer Copyright Disclaimer Copyright Email Contact:
State Herbarium of South Australia
Government of South Australia Government of South Australia Government of South Australia Department for Environment and Water