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Chondrophycus cruciatus (Harvey) Nam 1999: 463.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Family Rhodomelaceae – Tribe Laurencieae


Laurencia cruciata Harvey 1855a: 544; 1863, synop.: xxvi. J. Agardh 1876: 652. De Toni 1903: 790. Ducker et al. 1997: 87. Huisman 1997: 205. Huisman & Walker 1990: 436. Levring 1946: 226. Lucas 1909: 39. Millar 1990: 464, fig. 75. Millar & Kraft 1993: 54. Saito & Womersley 1974: 843, figs 5C, 24. Silva et al. 1996: 507. Sonder 1880: 30. Tate 1882a: 122. Tisdall 1898: 512. Womersley 1953: 38. Yamada 1931: 198, pl. 5a, fig. E.

Thallus (Fig. 218A) dark brown-red, firm, cartilaginous, 2–7 cm high, with one to several main branches bearing irregularly radially lesser branches for 3 or 4 orders, mostly 2–6 mm apart, alternate to subopposite (then appearing "cruciate"), branched at wide angles (Fig. 218B), terete and of uniform diameter, 0.7–1 (–1.2) mm in main branches, 0.5–1 mm in lesser branches, with slightly broader, truncated apices. Holdfast small, discoid; usually epiphytic on Amphibolis. Structure. Epidermal cells rounded to oval near apices, 10–20 across with the gelatinous wall matrix often polygonal, elongating to L/D 2–5 below (Fig. 218C), without secondary pit-connections or corps en cerise; in section, epidermal cells compact (Fig. 219B), palisade-like and L/D 1.5–2 near apices, 2–5 (–8) in older parts; cortical cells compact with slight spaces, cells becoming thick walled with occasional massive thickenings. Cells with discoid to elongate rhodoplasts, chained in larger cells.

Reproduction: Female plants unknown. Spermatangial ramuli with terminal receptacles 0.7–1 mm across.

Stichidial branchlets short, simple, clavate, with broad truncated apices, tetrasporangia (Fig. 218D) cut off abaxially in right-angle arrangement, subspherical to ovoid, 90–120 µm in diameter, tetrahedrally to decussately divided.

Type from Rottnest I., W. Aust., on Amphibolis antarctica (Harvey); lectotype in Herb. Harvey, TCD (Trav. Set 209).

Selected specimens: Port Denison, W. Aust., drift (Kraft, 14.xii.1971; AD, A41615). Safety Bay, W. Aust., drift (Womersley, 18.viii.1979; AD, A50755). Goose I., Recherche Arch., W. Aust., drift (Willis, 23.xi.1950; AD, A15912). Outer Harbor, S. Aust., on Amphibolis antarctica, drift (Womersley, 16.vii.1950; AD, A13287). 5 km W of Port Noarlunga, S. Aust., 21 m deep (Ottaway, 8.xii.1980; AD, A52130). Kingston, S. Aust., on Amphibolis antarctica, 6–7 m deep (R. Lewis, 28.xi.1972; AD, A42850).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: Houtman Abrolhos, W. Aust., to Kingston, S. Aust., in isolated localities. N.S.W. Tropical Indian Ocean (see Silva et al. 1996: 507).


AGARDH, J.G. (1876). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 3, Part 1 - Epicrisis systematis Floridearum, pp. i-vii, 1–724. (Weigel: Leipzig.)

DE TONI, G.B. (1903). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 4. Florideae. Sect. 3. pp. 775–1521 + 1523–1525. (Padua.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1855a). Some account of the marine botany of the colony of Western Australia. Trans. R. Jr. Acad. 22, 525–566.

HARVEY, W.H. (1863). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 5, Plates 241–300, synop., pp. i-lxxiii. (Reeve: London.)

HUISMAN, J.M. & WALKER, D.I. (1990). A catalogue of the marine plants of Rottnest Island, Western Australia, with notes on their distribution and biogeography. Kingia 1, 349–459.

HUISMAN, J.M. (1997). Marine Benthic Algae of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia. In Wells, F.E. (Ed.) The Marine Flora and Fauna of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia, pp. 177–237. (W. Aust. Museum: Perth.)

LEVRING, T. (1946). A list of marine algae from Australia and Tasmania. Acta Horti gothoburg 16, 215–227.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1909). Revised list of the Fucoideae and Florideae of Australia. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 34, 9–60.

MILLAR, A.J.K. & KRAFT, G.T. (1993). Catalogue of marine and freshwater Red Algae (Rhodophyta) of New South Wales, including Lord Howe Island, South-western Pacific. Aust. Syst. Bot. 6, 1–90.

MILLAR, A.J.K. (1990). Marine Red Algae of the Coffs Harbour Region, northern New South Wales. Aust. Syst. Bot. 3, 293–593.

NAM, K.W. (1999). Morphology of Chondrophycus undulata and C. parvipapillata and its implications for the taxonomy of the Laurencia (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta) complex. Eur. J. Phycol. 34, 455–468.

SAITO, Y. & WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1974). The southern Australian species of Laurencia (Ceramiales: Rhodophyta). Aust. J. Bot. 22, 815–874.

SILVA, P.C., BASSON, P.W. & MOE, R.L. (1996). Catalogue of the Benthic Marine Algae of the Indian Ocean. (Univ. California Press: Berkeley.)

SONDER, O.W. (1880). In Mueller, F., Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae. Supplementum ad volumen undecinum: Algae Australianae hactenus cognitae, pp. 1–42, 105–107. (Melbourne.)

TATE, R. (1882a). A list of the charas, mosses, liverworts, lichens, fungs, and algals of extratropical South Australia. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 4, 5–24.

TISDALL, H.T. (1898). The algae of Victoria. Rep. 7th Meet. Aust. Ass. Adv. Sci., Sydney, 1898, pp. 493–516.

WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1953). The Archipelago of the Recherche. 3b. Marine Algae. Aust. Geogr. Soc. Rep. No. 1, Part 3B, pp. 36–38.

YAMADA, Y. (1931). Notes on Laurencia, with special reference to the Japanese species. Univ. Calif Pubis Bot. 16, 185–311.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIID complete list of references.

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (24 February, 2003)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIID. Ceramiales – Delesseriaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodomelaceae
Reproduced with permission from The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIID 2003, by H.B.S. Womersley. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia.

Illustrations in Womersley Part IIIA, 2003: FIGS 218, 219B.

Figure 218 image

Figure 218   enlarge

Fig. 218. Chondrophvcus cruciatus (A, B, AD, A13287; C, AD, A42850; D, AD, A41615). A. Habit, on Amphibolis. B. Branches. C. Transverse section with elongate epidermal cells. D. Tetrasporangia in branch apex. (B as in Saito & Womersley 1974, courtesy of Aust. J. Bot.)

Figure 219 image

Figure 219   enlarge

Fig. 219. A. Chondrophycus brandenii (AD, A44287). Longitudinal section. B. Chondrophycus cruciatus (AD, A13287). Transverse section. C. Chondrophycus paniculatus (AD, A41614). Transverse section. D. Chondrophycus tumidus (AD, A42777). Longitudinal section. (All as in Saito & Womersley 1974, courtesy of Aust. J. Bot.)

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