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Chondria incurva Gordon-Mills & Womersley 1987: 512, figs 8D, 10G–J, 11, 12A.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Family Rhodomelaceae – Tribe Chondrieae

Selected citations: Silva et al. 1996: 483.

Thallus (Fig. 188C) medium to dark red-brown, fading to yellow-red, 8–25 (–30) cm high, irregularly radially or unilaterally branched for 3–4 orders, branches terete, upper parts of branches frequently curved usually adaxially, with frequent axillary branches; lower axes 1–2 (–4) mm in diameter, grading to lesser branchlets 1–1.5 mm in diameter. Holdfast discoid, 1–10 mm across, frequently with basal stolons attached by haptera; epilithic or epiphytic on Amphibolis or algae, occasionally epizoic. Structure. Apices in a distinct depression, with 5 pericentral cells (Fig. 188E) and a broad cortex with epidermal cells 20–50 µm in diameter and L/D 1–1.5 (–2.5); axial cells often clear in side view of branches, 50–70 µm in diameter and L/D 1–1.5 (–2). Mature axes with distinct rings of pericentral and inner cortical cells, separated by rhizoids, and the lower axes developing a secondary cortex. Cell wall thickenings in mid to lower axes, forming patches or bands on the upper ends and sides of pericentral and inner cortical cells. Trichoblasts profuse at apices, 1–1.5 mm long. Cells with discoid to elongate rhodoplasts, chained in larger cells.

Reproduction: Gametophytes dioecious. Procarps not observed. Carposporophytes with a large basal fusion cell and branched gonimoblast with clavate terminal carposporangia 30–40 µm in diameter. Cystocarps (Fig. 188E) ovoid, 1–1.2 mm in diameter; with a short stalk and a blunt, rounded spur; pericarp ostiolate, corticated, 3–4 cells thick. Spermatangial plates (Fig. I 88F) discoid to slightly lobed, 700–800 µm across, with a sterile margin 1 (–2) cells broad.

Tetrasporangia (Fig. 188G, FI) occur in lesser branches, borne singly on 2–3 pericentral cells per axial cell, 80–130 µm in diameter.

Type from Vivonne Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., 0.5 m deep on jetty pile (Kraft & Min-Thein, 4.xii.1971); holotype sheet in AD, A41407.

Selected specimens: Port Denison, W. Aust., drift (Kraft 4006, 14.xii.1971; AD, A41729). Yanchep, W. Aust., drift (Womersley, 22.ix.1979; AD, A51277). Elliston, S. Aust., 7 m deep in bay (Shepherd, 21.x.1970; AD, A37593) and 10–12 m deep in bay (Shepherd, 24.x.1969; AD, A34967) and 9 m deep (Edyvane, 28.ix.1982; AD, A53370). Goldsmith Beach, Yorke Pen., S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 20.ix.1981; AD, A52073). Marino, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 4.x.1964; AD, A28229). Vivonne Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., 1–4 m deep on jetty piles (Kraft, 6.iv.1972; AD, A42363). Pennington Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., drift (Kraft & Min-Thein, 3.xii.1971; AD, A41391). Robe, S. Aust., inside Baudin Rocks, 8 m deep (P. Womersley, 24.viii.1973; AD, A43969). Nora Creina, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 6.xii.1995; AD, A64746). Double Corner Beach, Portland, Vic., drift (Beauglehole, 22.vii.1951; AD, A21537). San Remo (back beach), Vic., drift (Sinkora, 27.xi.-5.xii.1974; AD, A55706, MEL, 608554).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: Port Denison, W. Aust., to San Remo, Vic.

Taxonomic notes: Chondria incurva is a sublittoral species mainly found on rough-water coasts. It is similar to Husseya rubra in transverse section of axes but differs in having reproductive bodies on or in normal branchlets and shorter epidermal cells.


GORDON-MILLS, E.M. & WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1987). The genus Chondria C. Agardh (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) in southern Australia. Aust. J. Bot. 35, 477–565.

SILVA, P.C., BASSON, P.W. & MOE, R.L. (1996). Catalogue of the Benthic Marine Algae of the Indian Ocean. (Univ. California Press: Berkeley.)

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIID complete list of references.

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (24 February, 2003)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIID. Ceramiales – Delesseriaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodomelaceae
Reproduced with permission from The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIID 2003, by H.B.S. Womersley. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia.

Illustration in Womersley Part IIIA, 2003: FIG. 188 C–H.

Figure 188 image

Figure 188   enlarge

Fig. 188. A, B. Chondria bulbosa (AD, A37250). A. Branches with tetrasporangia. B. Branch with tetrasporangia. C–H. Chondria incurva (C, AD, A41407; D, E. AD, A53370; F, AD, A34967; G, AD, A37593; H, AD, A42363). C. Habit. D. Transverse section of branch. E. Cystocarp. F. Spermatangial plate. G. Branch apex with tetrasporangia. H. Transverse section with tetrasporangia.

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