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Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet

Chondria fusifolia (Hooker & Harvey) Harvey 1859b: 298; 1863, synop.: xix.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Family Rhodomelaceae – Tribe Chondrieae

Selected citations: De Toni 1903:836. Gordon-Mills & Womersley 1987: 487, figs 1 A, B, 2–4. Guiler 1952: 104. Lucas 1909: 40; 1927: 561, pls 46, 47(1); 1929a: 21. Lucas & Perrin 1947: 258, fig. 115(?).


Laurencia fusifolia Hooker & Harvey 1847: 401. J. Agardh 1863: 811. Harvey 1849a: 86. Kützing 1849: 853.

Chondriopsis fusifolia (Hooker & Harvey) J. Agardh 1892: 156. Sonder 1880: 34. Tisdall 1898: 513. Wilson 1892: 165.

Laurencia tenuissima sensu Harvey 1844b: 444; 1849: 85. Hooker & Harvey 1847: 401.

Chondria tenuissima sensu Lucas & Perrin 1947: 258.

Thallus (Fig. 192A) light to medium red-brown, fading to yellow-brown, (3–) 10–20 (–30) cm high, usually fairly robust, much-branched irregularly radially for 3–4 orders, branches terete, with one to several axes (0.5–) 1–1.5 mm in diameter, grading to lesser branches 2–5 mm long and (250–) 400–800 µm in diameter, basally constricted. Holdfast discoid, 2–4 mm across; epilithic or epiphytic, usually in shallow water. Structure. Apices bluntly pointed (Fig. 192G), with 9–14 axial cells bearing pericentral cells and trichoblasts. Pericentral cells 5 (Fig. 192B), producing outwardly 3–4 quadrichotomous series of cortical cells, epidermal cells becoming 10–25 µm in diameter and L/D 2–5 (–12). Mature axes with large cortical cells and intermixed rhizoids (Fig. 193A). Cell wall thickenings usually absent, when present forming caps on pericentral cells (Fig. 192C). Trichoblasts 1–1.5 mm long. Cells with rhodoplasts discoid, chained in largest cells.

Reproduction: Gametophytes dioecious. Procarps (Fig. 193B) on the suprabasal cell of trichoblasts, the fifth pericentral cell bearing a 4-celled carpogonial branch and lateral and basal sterile groups, each becoming multicellular. Carposporophyte with a basal, branched, fusion cell and branched gonimoblast bearing elongate-clavate terminal carposporangia 30–45 m in diameter. Cystocarps (Fig. 192D, E) ovoid to slightly urceolate, 500–900 µm in diameter, with a slight basal spur (Fig. 193C, D); pericarp ostiolate, with 12–16 erect filaments, each cell producing outwardly 2 pericentral cells with slight cortication on the lower half. Spermatangial plates (Figs 192F, 193E–G) formed from a basal branch of a trichoblast, discoid, 250–350 µm across, with smooth or irregular margins 2 (–3) cells broad.

Tetrasporangia (Figs 192G, 193H) occur in lesser branches, borne adaxially (Fig. 193 1) near the distal end of pericentral cells which remain radially elongate, 100–130 µm in diameter.

Type from Sullivans Cove, Tas. (Lyali); lectotype in BM (lower specimen on type sheet).

Selected specimens: Middleton Beach, Albany, W. Aust., on Zostera, drift (Wood, 10.x.1960; AD, A24572). Lucky Bay, Cape Le Grand, W. Aust., on Posidonia, upper sublittoral (Womersley, 4.x.1979; AD, A51166). Elliston, S. Aust., on P. australis, drift (Womersley, 9.i.1976; AD, A46770). Vivonne Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., shaded pool, S side Ellen Point (Womersley, 29.viii.1950; AD, A15461). American R. inlet, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., on tidal flats (Womersley, 1.ii.1946; AD, A3152). Cape Thomas, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 24.viii.1960; AD, A24397). Carpenter rocks, S. Aust., upper sublittoral (Womersley, 5.ii.1970; AD, A35183-"Marine Algae of southern Australia" No. 308). Sorrento, Vic., drift on outer coast ("back beach") (Price, 14.vii.1963; MELU, A658) and 0.5 m deep (Gordon-Mills, 9.xii.1983; AD, A53796). Shoreham, Western Port, Vic. (King, 17.iv.1971; MELU, 20907). Georgetown, Tas. (Gunn 1319, BM: AD, A52069). Bridport, Tas., drift (Parsons & Womersley, 6.xi.1982; AD, A53759). Dover, Tas., drift (Cribb, 21.iii.1950; AD, A16343). Isthmus Bay, Bruny I., Tas., lower eulittoral (Womersley, 12.x.1986; AD, A57767). Pittwater, N.S.W., on seagrass, 20 cm deep (Harada, 22.x.1975; AD, A52360).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: Albany, W. Aust., to Pittwater, N.S.W., and around Tasmania.

Taxonomic notes: Chondria fusifolia is closely related to C. tenuissima (Goodenough & Woodward) C. Agardh from N Europe; differences between them were discussed by Gordon-Mills & Womersley (1987, p. 497).


AGARDH, J.G. (1863). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 2, Part 3, pp. 787–1291. (Gleerup: Lund.)

AGARDH, J.G. (1892). Analecta Algologica. Acta Univ. lund. 28, 1–182, Plates 1–3.

DE TONI, G.B. (1903). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 4. Florideae. Sect. 3. pp. 775–1521 + 1523–1525. (Padua.)

GORDON-MILLS, E.M. & WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1987). The genus Chondria C. Agardh (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) in southern Australia. Aust. J. Bot. 35, 477–565.

GUILER, E.R. (1952). The marine algae of Tasmania. Checklist with localities. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasmania 86, 71–106.

HARVEY, W.H. (1844b). Algae of Tasmania. Lond. J. Bot. 3, 428–454.

HARVEY, W.H. (1849a). Nereis Australis, pp. 65–124, Plates 26–50. (Reeve: London.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1859b). Algae. In Hooker, J.D., The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage. III. Flora Tasmaniae. Vol. II, pp. 282–343, Plates 185–196. (Reeve: London.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1863). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 5, Plates 241–300, synop., pp. i-lxxiii. (Reeve: London.)

HOOKER, J.D. & HARVEY, W.H. (1847). Algae Tasmanicae. Lond. J. Bot. 6, 397–417.

KÜTZING, F.T. (1849). Species Algarum. (Leipzig.)

LUCAS, A.H.S. & PERRIN, F. (1947). The Seaweeds of South Australia. Part 2. The Red Seaweeds. (Govt Printer: Adelaide.)

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1909). Revised list of the Fucoideae and Florideae of Australia. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 34, 9–60.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1927). Notes on Australian marine algae. V. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 52, 555–562, Plates 41–48.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1929a). The marine algae of Tasmania. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasm. 1928, 6–27.

SONDER, O.W. (1880). In Mueller, F., Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae. Supplementum ad volumen undecinum: Algae Australianae hactenus cognitae, pp. 1–42, 105–107. (Melbourne.)

TISDALL, H.T. (1898). The algae of Victoria. Rep. 7th Meet. Aust. Ass. Adv. Sci., Sydney, 1898, pp. 493–516.

WILSON, J.B. (1892). Catalogue of algae collected at or near Port Phillip Heads and Western Port. Proc. R. Soc. Viet. 4, 157–190.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIID complete list of references.

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (24 February, 2003)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIID. Ceramiales – Delesseriaceae, Sarcomeniaceae, Rhodomelaceae
Reproduced with permission from The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIID 2003, by H.B.S. Womersley. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia.

Illustrations in Womersley Part IIIA, 2003: FIGS 192, 193.

Figure 192 image

Figure 192   enlarge

Fig. 192. Chondria fusifolia (A, E, G, AD, A46770; B, AD, A53796; C, AD, A53759; D, AD, A3152; F, AD, A35183). A. Habit, on Posidonia. B. Transverse section of branch. C. Transverse and longitudinal sections with cell wall thickenings. D. Branches with cystocarps. E. Cystocarp. F. Spermatangial plates. G. Branch with tetrasporangia.

Figure 193 image

Figure 193   enlarge

Fig. 193. Chondria fusifolia (A, MELU, A658; B, F, G, AD, A15461; C, D, AD, A52069; E, AD, A35183; H, I, AD, A16343). A. Transverse section of branch. B. Procarp with carpogonial branch and basal and lateral sterile groups, and with developing pericarp. C. Branch with cystocarps, each with a spur. D. Cystocarp with carposporophyte. E. Young spermatangial plate on base of a trichoblast. F. Mature spermatangial plate. G. Section of spermatangial plate. H. Branches with tetrasporangia. I. Part section of branch with pericentral cells bearing tetrasporangia. (All as in Gordon-Mills & Womersley 1987, courtesy of Aust. J. Bot.)

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