Electronic Flora of South Australia
Electronic Flora of South Australia
Census of SA Plants, Algae & Fungi
Identification tools

Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet

Wrangelia velutina (Sonder) Harvey 1855a: 546; 1858, pl. 46; 1863, synop.: xxvii.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Order Ceramiales – Family Ceramiaceae – Tribe Wrangelieae

Selected citations: J. Agardh 1876: 617; 1879: 193, pl. 32 figs 1, 2. Bornet & Thuret 1876: 184. De Toni 1897: 128. Gordon 1972: 27, figs 6, 10I, 52. Guiler 1952: 99. Huisman & Walker 1990: 427. Levring 1946: 224. Lucas 1909:22; 1929b: 48. Lucas & Perrin 1947: 136, fig. 9. May 1965: 365. Reinbold 1898: 40. Sonder 1881:28. Tisdall 1898: 511. Wilson 1892: 170. Womersley 1950: 181.


Dasya velutina Sonder 1845: 53; 1848: 179. J. Agardh 1863: 1226. De Toni 1903: 1216. Lucas 1912: 158.

Phlebothamnion velutinum (Sonder) Kützing 1847: 52; 1849: 659; 1862: 5, pl. 14d-g.

Baillouviana velutina (Sonder) Kuntze 1891: 885.

Haliacantha incrustans J. Agardh 1899: 112, pl. 1 fig. 2a-f. De Toni 1903: 1438; 1924: 151. Kylin 1956: 382. Lucas 1909: 52. Lucas & Perrin 1947: 365. May 1965: 370.

Thallus (Fig. 5C) medium to dark brown-red, 3–16 cm high, irregularly branched for 2–3 orders, branches terete, 1–2 mm in diameter, diverging widely, usually widely spaced, often unequal in length. Holdfast 3–7 mm across, rhizoidal; epilithic (as short plants 3–6 cm high) or epiphytic on Amphibolis (larger, deeper water plants). Structure. Axes with small apical and sub-apical cells, enlarging to 200–300 µm in diameter and 400–500 µm long near the base. Each axial cell with 5 whorl-branchlets, developed from periaxial cells with the first formed often produced unilaterally, the first 3 in sequence around the axial cell, the fourth and fifth alternating. Mature whorl-branchlets (Fig. 7A) 1–1.5 mm long, subdichotomous 7–8 times, ultimate parts 2–4 cells long, terminal cells mucronate and L/D 1–2, median cells (40–) 55–90 µm in diameter and L/D 2–6. Indeterminate laterals arising on basal cell of whorl-branchlets. Cortication by descending rhizoids (often spiral) from the basal cells of whorl-branchlets, cortex 0.5–1 mm thick below. Cells uninucleate; rhodoplasts discoid, in chains in larger cells.

Reproduction: Gametophytes dioecious. Procarps (Fig. 7B) formed on sub-apical cells as in W. plumosa, the supporting cell without a sterile cell. Post-fertilization development as in W plumosa, with the carposporophyte (Fig. 51)) intermixed with sterile whorl-branchlets, the whole 700–1000 mm across; carposporangia clavate, 25–40 µm in diameter; axial cells below the fusion cell swelling and pit-connections enlarging. Spermatangial heads (Fig. 7C) developed as in W. plumosa, 45–125 µm in diameter.

Tetrasporangia (Fig. 7D) borne as in W plumosa, each surrounded by 1–2 small-celled involucral branchlets from the stalk cell, sporangia 45–90 µm in diameter, tetrahedrally divided.

Type from "occid. Nov. Holl." (Preiss); holotype in MEL, 15237.

Selected specimens: Safety Bay, W. Aust., drift (Womersley, 18.viii.1979; AD, A50780). Hopetoun, W. Aust., drift (Gordon, 20.xi.1968; AD, A32185). Point Sinclair, S. Aust., shallow pools (Womersley, 8.ii.1954; AD, A19625). Elliston, S. Aust., 10–11 m deep (Shepherd, 20.x.1969; AD, A35056) and lower eulittoral (Gordon, 16.v.1968; AD, A32156). Wedge I., S. Aust., in deep cave, mid eulittoral (Baldock, 29.xii.1963; AD, A27325). Tiparra Reef, S. Aust., on Amphibolis, 5 m deep (Shepherd, 30.ix.1970; AD, A37294). Pondalowie Bay, S. Aust., lower eulittoral (Womersley, 14.iv.1963; AD, A26348). Marino, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 22.ix.1945; AD, A1980). Investigator Strait, S. Aust., 23 m deep (Watson, 28.i.1971; AD, A41012). Vivonne Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 17.i.1950; AD, Al2638). Pennington Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., sublittoral fringe (Gordon, 17.xi.1967; AD, A31448). Port Elliot, S. Aust., drift (Gordon, 21.iii.1964; AD, A27500). Off Point Nepean, Port Phillip Heads, Vic., 5–7 m deep (Borowitzka & Walker, 3.xii.1983; AD, A55421). Shoreham, Western Port, Vic., drift (Sinkora A1287, 29.x.1971; AD, A62677).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: Rottnest I, W. Aust. (Huisman & Walker 1990: 427) to Western Port, Victoria.

Taxonomic notes: W. velutina is distinct in its irregular, relatively sparse, branching. This is superficially similar to Dasya divergens but the two species are distinct in structure. Small plants of W velutina occur just above or below low tide level on rough-water coasts, while larger plants are epiphytic on Amphibolis in deeper, less turbulent, water.

Weber van Bosse (1921, p. 222) recorded W. velutina from Borneo to Timor; these records need confirmation.


AGARDH, J.G. (1863). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 2, Part 3, pp. 787–1291. (Gleerup: Lund.)

AGARDH, J.G. (1876). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 3, Part 1- Epicrisis systematic Floridearum, pp. i-vii, 1–724. (Weigel: Leipzig.)

AGARDH, J.G. (1879). Florideernes morphologi. K. Svenska Vetensk. Akad. Handl. 15(6), 1–199, Plates 1–33.

AGARDH, J.G. (1899). Analecta Algologica. Cont. V. Acta Univ. lund. 35, 1–160, Plates 1–3.

BORNET, E. & THURET, G. (1876). Notes Algologiques. Fasc. 1, pp. 1–70, Plates 1–25. (Masson: Paris.)

DE TONI, G.B. (1897). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 4. Florideae. Sect. 1, pp. 1–388. (Padua.)

DE TONI, G.B. (1903). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 4. Florideae. Sect. 3, pp. 775–1521 + 1523–1525. (Padua.)

DE TONI, G.B. (1924). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 6. Florideae. (Padua.)

GORDON, E.M. (1972). Comparative morphology and taxonomy of the Wrangelieae, Sphondylothamnieae and Spermothamnieae (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta). Aust. J. Bot. suppl. 4, 1–180.

GUILER, E.R. (1952). The marine algae of Tasmania. Checklist with localities. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasmania 86, 71–106.

HARVEY, W.H. (1855a). Some account of the marine botany of the colony of Western Australia. Trans. R. Jr. Acad. 22, 525–566.

HARVEY, W.H. (1858). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 1, Plates 1–60. (Reeve: London.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1863). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 5, Plates 241–300, synop., pp. i-lxxiii. (Reeve: London.)

HUISMAN, J.M. & WALKER, D.I. (1990). A catalogue of the marine plants of Rottnest Island, Western Australia, with notes on their distribution and biogeography. Kingia 1, 349–459.

KÜTZING, F.T. (1847). Diagnosen and Bemerkungen zu neuen oder kritischen Algen. Bot. Zeit. 5, 1–5, 22–25, 33–38, 52–55, 164–167, 177–180, 193–198, 219–223.

KÜTZING, F.T. (1849). Species Algarum. (Leipzig.)

KÜTZING, F.T. (1862). Tabulae Phycologicae. Vol 12. (Nordhausen.)

KUNTZE, O. (1891). Revisio generum Plantarum. Part II. 4. Algae, pp. 877–930. (Leipzig.)

KYLIN, H. (1956). Die Gattungen der Rhodophyceen. (Gleerups: Lund.)

LEVRING, T. (1946). A list of marine algae from Australia and Tasmania. Acta Horti gothoburg 16, 215–227.

LUCAS, A.H.S. & PERRIN, F. (1947). The Seaweeds of South Australia. Part 2. The Red Seaweeds. (Govt Printer: Adelaide.)

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1909). Revised list of the Fucoideae and Florideae of Australia. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 34, 9–60.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1912). Supplementary list of the marine algae of Australia. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 37, 157–171.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1929b). A census of the marine algae of South Australia. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 53, 45–53.

MAY, V. (1965). A census and key to the species of Rhodophyceae (red algae) recorded from Australia. Contr. N.S.W. natn. Herb. 3, 349–429.

REINBOLD, T. (1898). Die Algen der Lacepede und Guichen Bay (Slid Australien) und deren näherer Umgebung, gesammelt von Dr. A. Engelhart-Kingston. II. Nuova Notarisia 9, 33–54.

SONDER, O.G. (1845). Nova Algarum genera et species, quas in itinere ad oras occidentales Novae Hollandiae, collegit L. Preiss, Ph.Dr. Bot. Zeit. 3, 49–57.

SONDER, O.W. (1848). Algae. In Lehmann, C., Plantae Preissianae. Vol. 2, pp. 161–195. (Hamburg.)

SONDER, O.W. (1881). In Mueller, F., Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae. Supplementum ad volumen undecinum: Algae Australianae hactenus cognitae, pp. 1–42, 105–107. (Melbourne.)

TISDALL, H.T. (1898). The algae of Victoria. Rep. 7th Meet. Aust. Ass. Adv. Sci., Sydney, 1898, pp. 493–516.

WILSON, J.B. (1892). Catalogue of algae collected at or near Port Phillip Heads and Western Port. Proc. R. Soc. Vict. 4, 157–190.

WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1950). The marine algae of Kangaroo Island. III. List of Species 1. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 73, 137–197.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIC complete list of references.

Author: H.B.S. Womersley

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (24 December, 1998)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIIC. Ceramiales – Ceramiaceae, Dasyaceae
©State Herbarium of South Australia, Government of South Australia

Illustrations in Womersley Part IIIA, 1998: FIGS 5C, D, 7.

Figure 5 image

Figure 5   enlarge

Fig. 5. A, B. Wrangelia plumosa (A, AD, A63241; B, AD, A27894). A. Habit. B. Carposporophyte with carposporangia and intermixed sterile filaments. C, D. Wrangelia velutina (C, AD, A27325; D, AD, A27500). C. Habit. D. Carposporophyte with carposporangia and intermixed sterile filaments.

Figure 7 image

Figure 7   enlarge

Fig. 7. Wrangelia velutina (AD, A27325). A. whorl-branchlet. B. Female axis bearing carpogonial branches on successive axial cells. C. A whorl-branchlet with clusters of spermatangial heads from lower cells. D. A tetrasporangial cluster from the base of a whorl-branchlet. (All as in Gordon 1972, courtesy of Aust. J. Bot.)

Disclaimer Copyright Disclaimer Copyright Email Contact:
State Herbarium of South Australia
Government of South Australia Government of South Australia Government of South Australia Department for Environment and Water