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Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet

Heterosiphonia callithamnium (Sonder) Falkenberg 1901: 647.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Order Ceramiales – Family Dasyaceae

Selected citations: De Toni 1903: 1225. De Toni & Forti 1923: 51. Lucas 1912: 158. Lucas & Perrin 1947: 316. Huisman et al. 1990: 96. Huisman & Walker 1990: 428. Kendrick et al. 1990: 51. Silva et al. 1996:



Polysiphonia callithamnium Sonder 1845: 54; 1848: 180. Harvey 1847: 45.

Dasya callithamnium (Sonder) Harvey 1855a: 543; 1863, synop.: xxiii. J. Agardh 1863: 1190; 1890a: 113; 1894b: 82. Kützing 1864: 28, pl. 77c-e. Sonder 1881: 36.

Eupogonium callithamnium (Sonder) Kützing 1849: 799.

Baillouviana callithamnium (Sonder) Kuntze 1891: 885.

Thallus (Fig. 220A) medium to dark red-brown to grey-red, 1–3 cm high, with several, dense, erect axes from prostrate axes, erect axes with few lateral branches, bearing pseudolaterals distichously arranged (Fig. 220B) but branched largely in transverse planes. Attachment by rhizoids; epiphytic on Amphibolis, Sargassum, Haliptilon and other algae. Structure. Apices of axes sympodially and distichously branched, developing 4 pericentral cells beginning 8–15 cells below apical cells, mature axial segments 130–180 µm in diameter and L/D 0.8–1.4. Pseudolaterals (Fig. 220B) 2 axial segments apart, 1–1.5 mm long, the basal 2 segments only becoming polysiphonous, the rest monosiphonous and branched 4–5 times mostly 2 cells apart at wide angles (usually >90°), lower monosiphonous cells 60–80 µm in diameter and L/D 0.8–1.4 (–2), tapering gradually to upper cells 25–40 µm in diameter and L/D 1–1.5, then to acute to mucronate terminal cells. Lateral branches probably arising on lower segments of pseudolaterals. Attachment rhizoids arising from lower cells of pseudolaterals, several cells long with multicellular haptera. Rhodoplasts discoid.

Reproduction: Gametophytes dioecious. Procarps unknown. Cystocarps (Fig. 220C) sessile on a polysiphonous branch, ovoid with a short neck, 350–700 µm in diameter; pericarp with erect filaments, each cell producing 3 pericentral cells which divide to form a layer of irregularly shaped cells; carposporophyte much branched, with a basal fusion cell and terminal rows of ovoid carposporangia 20–40 µm in diameter. Spermatangial branches (Fig. 220D) as ultimate branches of pseudolaterals, cylindrical, 100–250 µm long and 40–55 µm in diameter, with a 1–2-celled pedicel and 3–5-celled sterile tip.

Tetrasporangial stichidia (Fig. 220E) 100–700 µm long and 100–150 µm in diameter, becoming fertile when very short, occurring as branches of pseudolaterals with a 2–3-celled pedicel and short sterile tip, with 4 tetrasporangia per segment each with (1–) 2 pre-sporangial cover cells each divided transversely; tetrasporangia 40–50 µm in diameter.

Type from W. Aust., on Haliptilon (Preiss); lectotype in HBG (plant second from left on type sheet); isolectotype in MEL, 1005969.

Selected specimens: Champion Bay, W. Aust. ("Algae Muellerianae", MEL, 1005791/2). Hillarys Boat Harbour, Sorrento, W. Aust., on Codium galeatum, 6 m deep (AIMS-NCI Q66 C2603-U, 11.iii.1989; AD, A59629). Swan R., W. Aust. (Harvey, AIg. Aust. Exsicc. 214A; TCD and AD, A18263). Safety Bay, W. Aust., drift (Womersley, 29.ix.1979; AD, A50733). Point Peron, W. Aust., on Amphibolis, drift (Parsons, 15.xi.1968; AD, A33378). Hopetoun, W. Aust., on Sargassum, drift (Parsons, 20.xi.1968; AD, A33362). Elliston, S. Aust., on Sargassum, 5 m deep inside bar (Shepherd, 28.x.1972; AD, A42830). Tiparra Reef, S. Aust., on Amphibolis, 11 m deep (Shepherd, 31.x.1970; AD, A37658). Haystack I., Althorpe Is, S. Aust., 10 m deep (Baker, 29.x.1993; AD, A66323). Off Glenelg, S. Aust., 14 m deep (Shepherd, 31.viii.1968; AD, A35133). Emu Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., on Acrocarpia, 10–12 m deep (Lavers, 20.xii.1996; AD, A66889).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: Champion Bay, W. Aust., to Kangaroo I., S. Australia.


AGARDH, J.G. (1863). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 2, Part 3, pp. 787–1291. (Gleerup: Lund.)

AGARDH, J.G. (1890a). Till algernes systematik. Acta Univ. lund. 26(3), 1–125, Plates 1–3.

AGARDH, J.G. (1894b). Analecta Algologica. Cont. II. Acta Univ. lund. 30, 1–98, Plate 1.

DE TONI, G.B. & FORTI, A. (1923). Alghe di Australia, Tasmania e Nouva Zelanda. Mein. R. Inst. Veneto Sci., Lett. Arti 29, 1–183, Plates 1–10.

DE TONI, G.B. (1903). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 4. Florideae. Sect. 3, pp. 775–1521 + 1523–1525. (Padua.)

FALKENBERG, P. (1901). Die Rhodomelaceen des Golfes von Neapel und der angrenzenden Meeres-abschnitte. Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel. Monogr. 26. (Friedlander: Berlin.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1847). Nereis Australis, pp. 1–64, Plates 1–25. (Reeve: London.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1855a). Some account of the marine botany of the colony of Western Australia. Trans. R. Jr. Acad. 22, 525–566.

HARVEY, W.H. (1863). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 5, Plates 241–300, synop., pp. i-lxxiii. (Reeve: London.)

HUISMAN, J.M. & WALKER, D.I. (1990). A catalogue of the marine plants of Rottnest Island, Western Australia, with notes on their distribution and biogeography. Kingia 1, 349–459.

HUISMAN, J.M., KENDRICK, G.A., WALKER, D.I. & COUTÉ, A. (1990). The Marine Algae of Shark Bay, Western Australia. Research in Shark Bay. Report of the France-Australe Bicentenary Expedition Committee, pp. 89–100.

KÜTZING, F.T. (1849). Species Algarum. (Leipzig.)

KÜTZING, F.T. (1864). Tabulae Phycologicae. Vol. 14. (Nordhausen.)

KENDRICK, G.A., HUISMAN, J.M. & WALKER, D.I. (1990). Benthic macroalgae of Shark Bay, Western Australia. Bot. Mar 33, 47–54.

KUNTZE, O. (1891). Revisio generum Plantarum. Part II. 4. Algae, pp. 877–930. (Leipzig.)

LUCAS, A.H.S. & PERRIN, F. (1947). The Seaweeds of South Australia. Part 2. The Red Seaweeds. (Govt Printer: Adelaide.)

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1912). Supplementary list of the marine algae of Australia. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 37, 157–171.

SILVA, P.C., BASSON, P.W. & MOE, R.L. (1996). Catalogue of the Benthic Marine Algae of the Indian Ocean. (University of California Press: Berkeley, Los Angeles & London.)

SONDER, O.G. (1845). Nova Algarum genera et species, quas in itinere ad oras occidentales Novae Hollandiae, collegit L. Preiss, Ph.Dr. Bot. Zeit. 3, 49–57.

SONDER, O.W. (1848). Algae. In Lehmann, C., Plantae Preissianae. Vol. 2, pp. 161–195. (Hamburg.)

SONDER, O.W. (1881). In Mueller, F., Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae. Supplementum ad volumen undecinum: Algae Australianae hactenus cognitae, pp. 1–42, 105–107. (Melbourne.)

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIC complete list of references.

Author: M.J. Parsons and H.B.S. Womersley

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (24 December, 1998)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIIC. Ceramiales – Ceramiaceae, Dasyaceae
©State Herbarium of South Australia, Government of South Australia

Illustration in Womersley Part IIIA, 1998: FIG. 220.

Figure 220 image

Figure 220   enlarge

Fig. 220. Heterosiphonia callithamnium (A, AD, A37658; B, E, AD, A33362; C, D, AD, A33378). A. Habit. B. Axis with ecorticate pseudolaterals 2 segments apart. C. Cystocarp, sectional view. D. Spermatangial branches. E. Stichidia.

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