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Euptilota articulata (J. Agardh) Schmitz 1896: 7.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Order Ceramiales – Family Ceramiaceae – Tribe Ptiloteae

Selected citations: De Toni 1903: 1370. De Toni & Forti 1923: 54. Fuhrer et al. 1981, pls 81, 82. Huisman 1997: 198. Huisman & Walker 1990: 422. Lucas 1909: 50; 1929a: 25; 1929b: 52. Lucas & Perrin 1947; 338, fig. 164. May 1965: 375. Millar 1990: 400, fig. 45F, G. Millar & Kraft 1993: 40. Okamura 1921: 130, p1. 183 figs 1–9. Silva et al. 1996: 409. Sonder 1853: 674. Yoshida et al. 1990: 300.


Ptilota articulata J. Agardh 1841: 36; 1852: 100; 1876: 78. Harvey 1859b: 331; 1863, synop.: xlix. Kützing 1849: 670; 1862: 17, pl. 56d, e. Sonder 1881: 11.

Ptilota coralloidea J. Agardh 1841: 35; 1852: 101; 1876: 28. Harvey 1855a: 558; 1863, synop. xlix. Sonder 1848: 169; 1855: 514; 1881: 11.

Euptilota coralloidea (J. Agardh) Kützing 1849: 672. De Toni 1903: 1371. De Toni & Forti 1923: 54, pl. 7 figs 2, 3. Ewart 1907: 91. Huisman & Walker 1990: 423. Lucas 1909: 50; 1929a: 25; 1929b: 52. Lucas & Perrin 1947: 338, fig. 165. May 1965: 375. Mazza 1926: No. 818. Silva et al. 1996: 409.

Euptilota formosissima (Montagne) Kützing sensu Lewis 1984: 43. Lucas 1935: 226. May 1965: 375.

Thallus (Pl. 2 fig. 2; Figs 164A, 165A) erect, medium to dark red, 5–25 cm high, pinnate, complanately and densely branched for 4 or 5 orders, laterals alternate, becoming densely corticated except close to apices, axes and laterals slightly compressed, 0.5–2 mm broad. Ultimate largely ecorticate branchlets alternately distichous, 200–500 µm long, pinnules 70–100 Rm long. Holdfast densely rhizoidal, 2–10 mm across; epilithic. Structure. Apical filaments (Figs 164D, 165B) alternately branched, with oblique alternating cross walls, apical cells 20–25 µm in diameter and L/D 0.6–1, axial cells enlarging to 400–600 µm in diameter in lower thallus; cortication commencing usually within 10–15 cells of apices (Figs 164D, 165B), originating from basal cells of laterals, soon becoming dense and largely obscuring the axial cells (Fig. 164E), outer cells small, isodiametric to irregular and angular, 10–15 µm across; older axes (Fig. 164B, C) with a multilayered cortex around 3–4 large central cells, with rhizoidal filaments of long cells between the axial cells and inner, larger, cortical cells. Cells uninucleate; rhodoplasts discoid.

Reproduction: Gametophytes dioecious. Carpogonial branches (Fig. 141E) borne on a supporting cell on subapical cells of ecorticate laterals, opposite a branch with often 2 or 3 in close succession, probably with 1 or 2 other sterile periaxial cells; post-fertilization stages unknown. Carposporophytes (Fig. 165C) situated at the apex of short lateral branches, with a single gonimolobe 300–500 µm across of ovoid carposporangia 30–70 µm in diameter, surrounded by an involucre of simple, tapering, branchlets 300–450 µm and 8–12 cells long, mid cells 35–50 µm in diameter and L/D 0.7–1.2. Spermatangia (Fig. 165D) in dense clusters on terminal and lower cells of pinnules.

Tetrasporangia (Fig. 165E) borne laterally or terminally on the pinnules, sessile, subspherical to slightly ovoid, 70–100 µm in diameter, tetrahedrally divided.

Type from "Nov. Holl."(from Webb, ex Herb. Labillardière); in Herb. Agardh, LD, 20116.

Selected specimens: Flat Rocks, 40 km S of Geraldton, W. Aust., drift (Mitchell, 17.ix.1966; AD, A31102). Whitfords Beach, Perth, W. Aust., 6 m deep (Cook, 20.viii. 1979: AD, A50566). Hopetoun, W. Aust., drift (Gordon, 20.xi.1968; AD, A34137). Catherine Bay, Rottnest I., W. Aust., 15 m deep (Huisman, 20.xii.1992; MURU, JH 727). Seamount off Cannon Reefs, S. Aust., 22–30 m deep (Branden, 22.i.1991; AD, A61210). Pearson I., S. Aust., 36 m deep (Shepherd, 10.i.1969; AD, A34156). Wanna, S. Aust., 5 m deep in cave mouth (Hicks, 2.i.1982; AD, A55370). Dubious Rock, West I., S. Aust., 23 m deep (Shepherd, 3.i.1966; AD, A30324). Cape du Couedic, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., shaded reef pools (Womersley, 16.i.1965; AD, A28961). Robe, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 29.ix.1996; AD, A66669). Port MacDonnell, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 29.ix.1996; AD, A66633). Lawrence Rock, Portland, Vic., 8–11 m deep (Larkum, 2.ix.1971; AD, A39630). Crawfish Rock, Westernport Bay, Vic., 2 m deep (Watson, 31.x.1971; AD, A42210). Bluestone Bay, Freycinet Pen., Tas., 6 m deep (Brown & McGeary,4.xi.1982; AD, A56269). Fluted Cape, Bruny I., Tas., 23 m deep (Shepherd, 12.ii.1972; AD, A41926). Arch Rock, SE Tas., 6–15 m deep (Kraft, 16.xii.1993; AD, A63410).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: From Flat Rocks (S of Geraldton) and Houtman Abrolhos, W. Aust., to Coffs Harbour and Lord Howe I., N.S.W. (Millar & Kraft 1993) and E Tasmania.

Taxonomic notes: E. articulata is a common species on rough-water coasts throughout southern Australia, from shaded relatively shallow situations to deep water. It is a fairly variable species, especially in how soon cortication develops and becomes complete below the apices of axes and laterals, and the length of the unbranched ultimate pinnules (e.g. in A63410). The habit and general appearance varies dependent on age, rate of growth, and proliferations on older, partly denuded plants.

There is no recognisable difference between E. coralloidea and E. articulata.

E. articulata has been reported from Japan (Okamura 1921, p. 130, pl. 183 figs 1–9; Itono 1977, p. 41) and from India (eg. Umamaheswara Rao 1974, p. 65, figs 12–14), indicating that it is a widely distributed species.


AGARDH, J.G. (1841). In historiam algarum symbolae. Linnaea 15, 1–50, 443–457.

AGARDH, J.G. (1852). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 2, Part 2, pp. 337–720. (Gleerup: Lund.)

AGARDH, J.G. (1876). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 3, Part 1- Epicrisis systematic Floridearum, pp. i-vii, 1–724. (Weigel: Leipzig.)

DE TONI, G.B. & FORTI, A. (1923). Alghe di Australia, Tasmania e Nouva Zelanda. Mein. R. Inst. Veneto Sci., Lett. Arti 29, 1–183, Plates 1–10.

DE TONI, G.B. (1903). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 4. Florideae. Sect. 3, pp. 775–1521 + 1523–1525. (Padua.)

EWART, A.J. (1907). Notes on a collection of marine algae from King Island. Vic. Nat. 23, 90–92.

FUHRER, B., CHRISTIANSON, I.G., CLAYTON, M.N. & ALLENDER, B.M. (1981). Seaweeds of Australia. (Reed: Frenchs Forest, Sydney.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1855a). Some account of the marine botany of the colony of Western Australia. Trans. R. Jr. Acad. 22, 525–566.

HARVEY, W.H. (1859b). Algae. In Hooker, J.D., The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage. III. Flora Tasmaniae. Vol. II, pp. 282–343, Plates 185–196. (Reeve: London.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1863). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 5, Plates 241–300, synop., pp. i-lxxiii. (Reeve: London.)

HUISMAN, J.M. & WALKER, D.I. (1990). A catalogue of the marine plants of Rottnest Island, Western Australia, with notes on their distribution and biogeography. Kingia 1, 349–459.

HUISMAN, J.M. (1997). Marine Benthic Algae of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia. In Wells, F.E. (Ed.) The Marine Flora and Fauna of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia, pp. 177–237. (W. Aust. Museum: Perth.)

ITONO, H. (1977). Studies on the Ceramiaceous algae (Rhodophyta) from southern parts of Japan. Bibliotheca Phycologia 35, 1–499.

KÜTZING, F.T. (1849). Species Algarum. (Leipzig.)

KÜTZING, F.T. (1862). Tabulae Phycologicae. Vol 12. (Nordhausen.)

LEWIS, J.A. (1984). Checklist and bibliography of benthic marine macroalgae recorded from northern Australia. I. Rhodophyta. Dept. Defence, Materials Res. Lab., Melbourne, Vic. Report MRL-R-912.

LUCAS, A.H.S. & PERRIN, F. (1947). The Seaweeds of South Australia. Part 2. The Red Seaweeds. (Govt Printer: Adelaide.)

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1909). Revised list of the Fucoideae and Florideae of Australia. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 34, 9–60.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1929a). The marine algae of Tasmania. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasm. 1928, 6–27.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1929b). A census of the marine algae of South Australia. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 53, 45–53.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1935). The marine algae of Lord Howe Island. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 60, 194–232, Plates 5–9.

MAY, V. (1965). A census and key to the species of Rhodophyceae (red algae) recorded from Australia. Contr. N.S.W. natn. Herb. 3, 349–429.

MAZZA, A. (1926). Saggio di Algologia Oceanica. Nos. 811–925. (Privately Printed.)

MILLAR, A.J.K. & KRAFT, G.T. (1993). Catalogue of marine and freshwater Red Algae (Rhodophyta) of New South Wales, including Lord Howe Island, South-western Pacific. Aust. Syst. Bot. 6, 1–90.

MILLAR, A.J.K. (1990). Marine red algae of the Coffs Harbour region, northern New South Wales. Aust. Syst. Bot. 3, 293–593.

OKAMURA, K. (1921). Icones of Japanese algae. Vol. 4(5), pp. 85–107, Plates 171–175.

SCHMITZ, F. (1896). Kleinere beitrage zur kenntniss der Florideen. Nuova Notarisia, Padova 7, 1–22.

SILVA, P.C., BASSON, P.W. & MOE, R.L. (1996). Catalogue of the Benthic Marine Algae of the Indian Ocean. (University of California Press: Berkeley, Los Angeles & London.)

SONDER, O.W. (1848). Algae. In Lehmann, C., Plantae Preissianae. Vol. 2, pp. 161–195. (Hamburg.)

SONDER, O.W. (1853). Plantae Muellerianae. Algae. Linnaea 25, 657–709.

SONDER, O.W. (1855). Algae annis 1852 et 1853 collectae. Linnaea 26, 506–528.

SONDER, O.W. (1881). In Mueller, F., Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae. Supplementum ad volumen undecinum: Algae Australianae hactenus cognitae, pp. 1–42, 105–107. (Melbourne.)

UMAMAHESWARA RAO, M. (1974). Additions to the algal flora of the Gulf of Mannar and Palk Bay from Mandapan Area II. Phykos 13(2), 56–59.

YOSHIDA, T., NAKAJIMA, Y. & NAKATA, Y. (1990). Check-list of marine algae of Japan (revised in 1990). Jap. J. Phycol. (Sôrui) 38, 269–320.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIC complete list of references.

Author: H.B.S. Womersley

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (24 December, 1998)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIIC. Ceramiales – Ceramiaceae, Dasyaceae
©State Herbarium of South Australia, Government of South Australia

Illustrations in Womersley Part IIIA, 1998: PLATE 2 fig. 2; FIGS 141E, 164, 165.

Plate 2 image

Plate 2   enlarge

PLATE 2 fig. 1. Anotrichium elongatum at Robe, S. Aust. (AD, A63206).
fig. 2. Euptilota articulata at Rottnest I., W.Aust. (MURU, JH727). Photo: J.M. Huisman.
fig. 3. Ceramium rubrum at Cloudy Lagoon, SE Tas. (AD, A64230). Photo: G. Edgar.
fig. 4. Ceramium excellens at Cloudy Lagoon, SE Tas. (AD, A64234). Photo: G. Edgar.

Figure 141 image

Figure 141   enlarge

Fig. 141. A, B. Spongoclonium australicum (AD, A66797). A. A young fertile branch prior to carpogonial branch development. B. A fertile axis with a carpogonial branch. C. Lophothamnion hirtum (AD, A66723). A fertile branch with a carpogonial branch. D. Haloplegma preisii (AD, A26526). A branch apex with a carpogonial branch plus trichogyne, and other sterile cel Is or filaments. E. Euptilota articulata (AD, A63815). A branch apex with a carpogonial branch. F. Ptilota hannafordii (AD, A27397). A branch apex with a carpogonial branch.

Figure 164 image

Figure 164   enlarge

Fig. 164. Euptilota articulata (A, D, AD, A66633; B, C, AD, A56269; E, AD, A63961) A. Habit. B. Transverse section of young branch. C. Transverse section of older branch. D. Branch apex with alternate, distichous, branchlets and cortication. E. Older corticated branch.

Figure 165 image

Figure 165   enlarge

Fig. 165. Euptilota articulata (A, B, AD, A63410; C, AD, A66633; D, E, AD, A63961). A. Habit. B. Branch apex with alternate, distichous, branchlets with relatively slight cortication. C. Branches with carposporophytes. D. Branch with clusters of spermatangia. E. Branch with tetrasporangia.

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