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Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet

Euptilocladia spongiosa Wollaston 1968: 269, figs 13B–J, 14A–H, pl. 4.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Order Ceramiales – Family Ceramiaceae – Tribe Crouanieae

Selected citations: Huisman 1993: 12; 1997: 198. Silva et al. 1996: 408.


Ptilocladia pulchra sensu J. Agardh 1851: 113; 1876: 89. Bastow ] 899: pl. 2 fig. 62. De Toni 1903: 1424. Harvey 1855a: 557; 1862, pl. 209: 12. Kützing 1849: 674; 1862:20, pl. 65. Lucas 1909: 52; 1929b: 52. Lucas & Perrin 1947: 360, fig. 180. May 1965:363. Mazza 1912: No. 419. Reinbold 1897:61. Tisdall 1898: 503. Wilson 1892: 185. Womersley 1948: 162; 1950: 179. [NON Sonder 1845: 52].

Thallus (Fig. 18A) medium to dark red-brown, 5–18 cm high, spongiose, more or less alternately distichously branched (Fig. 19A) throughout, usually with a single main axis, much branched above for 4 or 5 orders, axes compressed, 1–4 mm broad, decreasing gradually to lesser branches 0.5–1 mm broad; main branches usually with numerous short, distichous, terete laterals (Fig. 19A) 1–5 mm long; branches completely covered by whorl-branchlets. Holdfast conical, rhizoidal, 1–3 mm across; epilithic or occasionally epiphytic. Structure. Axes with small apical cells enlarging to 90–150 µm in diameter and L/D 1–1.5, each cell with 4 whorl-branchlets (Fig. 19B) initiated very close to apices of axes, with 2 opposite longer branchlets 400–650 µm and 10–14 cells long, branched 6–8 times with terminal rows of 3–8 cells, and 2 opposite shorter branchlets 180–300 µm and 8–10 cells long; lower cells of whorl-branchlets thick walled, 50–90 µm in diameter and L/D 1–1.6, tapering to rows of small cells 8–10 µm in diameter and L/D 1–1.5. Lateral branches arise from the basal cells of whorl-branchlets and the axial cells become heavily corticated by rhizoids from the basal and inner cells of whorl-branchlets (Fig. 19C). Cells uninucleate; rhodoplasts discoid.

Reproduction: Gametophytes probably dioecious. Procarps (Fig. 19D) borne in place of a whorl-branchlet several cells below apices, with a supporting cell bearing a 4-celled carpogonial branch; post-fertilization the auxiliary cell forms a lower foot cell and a laterally elongate cell which cuts off 2 gonimolobes (Fig. 19E) and later further ones, 90–120 µm across with somewhat angular carposporangia 20–30 µm across. Mature carposporophytes are surrounded by whorl-branchlets in short determinate branches (Fig. 19A). Spermatangia unknown.

Tetrasporangia (Fig. 19F) are borne on central cells of the whorl-branchlets, sessile, subspherical, 35–55 µm in diameter, tetrahedrally divided.

Type from Robe, S. Aust., drift (Wollaston, 18.v.1964); holotype and isotypes in AD, A27925.

Selected specimens: Penguin I., W. Aust., drift (Wollaston, 3.ii.1957; AD, A22116). Flinders Bay, W. Aust., drift (Wollaston, 12.ii.1957; AD, A22115). Head of Great Australian Bight, S. Aust., drift (Gordon, 4.xi. 1 968; AD, A34194). 4 km W of Waldegrave I., S. Aust., 30 m deep (Branden, 3.vii.1987; AD, A57579). Investigator Strait, S. Aust., 31 m deep (Watson, 23.i.1971; AD, A41123). Port Elliot, S. Aust., drift (Kraft, 7.vii.1973; AD, A43728). 1.3 km off Cape Northumberland, S. Aust., 15 m deep (Shepherd, 9.ii.1977; AD, A55232). Vivonne Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 2.i.1949; AD, A10641). Pennington Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., drift (Kraft & Min Thein, 3.xii.1971; AD, A41370). Stanley Beach (E of Pennington Bay), Kangaroo I., S. Aust., drift (Wollaston, 2.vii.1956; AD, A20053). Waratah Bay, Vic., drift (Sinkora A2328, 11.iii.1976; AD, A48386).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: Houtman Abrolhos, W. Aust. (Huisman 1997), to Waratah Bay, Victoria.


AGARDH, J.G. (1851). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 2, Part 1, I-XII, 1–336 + index. (Gleerup: Lund.)

AGARDH, J.G. (1876). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 3, Part 1- Epicrisis systematic Floridearum, pp. i-vii, 1–724. (Weigel: Leipzig.)

DE TONI, G.B. (1903). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 4. Florideae. Sect. 3, pp. 775–1521 + 1523–1525. (Padua.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1855a). Some account of the marine botany of the colony of Western Australia. Trans. R. Jr. Acad. 22, 525–566.

HARVEY, W.H. (1862). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 4, Plates 181–240. (Reeve: London.)

HUISMAN, J.M. (1993). Supplement to the catalogue of marine plants recorded from Rottnest Island. In Wells, F.E., Walker, D.I., Kirkman, H. & Lethbridge, R. (Eds). The marine flora and fauna of Rottnest Island, Western Australia. Proc. Fifth Int. Mar. Biol. Workshop, pp. 11–18. (W. Aust. Museum: Perth.)

HUISMAN, J.M. (1997). Marine Benthic Algae of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia. In Wells, F.E. (Ed.) The Marine Flora and Fauna of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia, pp. 177–237. (W. Aust. Museum: Perth.)

KÜTZING, F.T. (1849). Species Algarum. (Leipzig.)

KÜTZING, F.T. (1862). Tabulae Phycologicae. Vol 12. (Nordhausen.)

LUCAS, A.H.S. & PERRIN, F. (1947). The Seaweeds of South Australia. Part 2. The Red Seaweeds. (Govt Printer: Adelaide.)

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1909). Revised list of the Fucoideae and Florideae of Australia. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 34, 9–60.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1929b). A census of the marine algae of South Australia. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 53, 45–53.

MAY, V. (1965). A census and key to the species of Rhodophyceae (red algae) recorded from Australia. Contr. N.S.W. natn. Herb. 3, 349–429.

MAZZA, A. (1912). Saggio di Algologia Oceanica. Nuova Notarisia 23, Nos. 415–447.

REINBOLD, T. (1897). Die Algen der Lacepede und Guichen Bay und deren näherer Umgebung (Süd Australien), gesammelt von Dr. A. Engelhart-Kingston. Nuova Notarisia 8, 41–62.

SILVA, P.C., BASSON, P.W. & MOE, R.L. (1996). Catalogue of the Benthic Marine Algae of the Indian Ocean. (University of California Press: Berkeley, Los Angeles & London.)

TISDALL, H.T. (1898). The algae of Victoria. Rep. 7th Meet. Aust. Ass. Adv. Sci., Sydney, 1898, pp. 493–516.

WILSON, J.B. (1892). Catalogue of algae collected at or near Port Phillip Heads and Western Port. Proc. R. Soc. Vict. 4, 157–190.

WOLLASTON, E.M. (1968).Morphology and taxonomy of southern Australian genera of Crouanieae Schmitz (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta). Aust. J. Bot. 16, 217–417.

WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1948). The marine algae of Kangaroo Island. II. The Pennington Bay Region. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 72, 143–166, Plates 10–15.

WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1950). The marine algae of Kangaroo Island. III. List of Species 1. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 73, 137–197.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIC complete list of references.

Author: E.M. Wollaston & H.B.S. Womersley

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (24 December, 1998)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIIC. Ceramiales – Ceramiaceae, Dasyaceae
©State Herbarium of South Australia, Government of South Australia

Illustrations in Womersley Part IIIA, 1998: FIGS 18A, 19 A–F.

Figure 18 image

Figure 18   enlarge

Fig. 18. A. Euptilocladia spongiosa (AD, A27925). B. Euptilocladia villosa (AD, A29282). C. Ptilocladia pulchra (AD, A64756). D–F. Ptilocladia vestita (D, AD, A64750; E, F, AD, A37695). Habit of each species. E. Spennatangia on terminal cells of whorl-branchlets. F. Branch with tetrasporangia. (A, B, as in Wollaston 1968, courtesy of Aust. J. Bot.)

Figure 19 image

Figure 19   enlarge

Fig. 19. A–F. Euptilocladia spongiosa (AD, uncertain). A. Thallus with distichous branches and short branches with carposporophytes. B. Cross section of compressed branch. C. Axis with rhizoids from lower cells of a whorl-branchlet. D. Axial cell with supporting cell and a 4-celled carpogonial branch. E. Young carposporophyte with gonimolobes from the ends of a laterally elongate cell. F. Whorl-branchlet with tetrasporangia. G–I. Euptilocladia villosa (AD, A29282). G. Branch with tetrasporangia. H. Transverse section of thallus with a young lateral branch. I. Whorl-branchlet with tetrasporangia. (All as in Wollaston 1968, courtesy of Aust. J. Bot.)

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