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Antithamnion pinnafolium Wollaston 1968: 289, fig. 17H–N.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Order Ceramiales – Family Ceramiaceae – Tribe Antithamnieae

Selected citations: Athanasiadis 1996: 148, fig. 68. Huisman & Walker 1990: 419. Silva et al. 1996: 379.

Thallus (Fig. 45A) red-brown, with prostrate branched axes bearing erect laterals 5–15 mm high, pinnae opposite, distichous, with opposite pinnules (Fig. 45A) of equal development from each rachis cell above the basal cell. Attachment by clusters of branched rhizoids (Fig. 47C) arising from the basal cells of pinnae, each branch developing terminal branched haptera; epiphytic on various algae. Structure. Apical cells (Fig. 47A) 8–10 µm in diameter and L/D 1–1.5, enlarging to 90–120 µm in diameter and L/D 1.5–2 in mature axial cells. Pinnae (Fig. 47B) 500–1000 µm and 12–24 cells long, with a small rounded basal cell (without pinnules) and each rachis cell above bearing opposite pinnules, simple apart from frequent branches on the lower 1 or 2 pinnules (Fig. 47B), rachis cells 30–45 µm in diameter and L/D 1–1.5, pinnule cells 10–22 µm in diameter and L/D 0.7–1.3, decreasing slightly to terminal cells with rounded ends; gland cells (Figs 45B, 47B) on short, 3–6-celled, pinnules, ovoid, 15–20 µm in diameter. Lateral branches arising irregularly, 2–7 axial cells apart, from the basal cells of pinnae. Cells uninucleate; rhodoplasts discoid, elongate in larger cells.

Reproduction: Unknown.

Type from Stanley Beach, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., on Sargassum (Womersley, 2.ii.1957); holotype in AD, A29504.

Selected specimens: Elliston, S. Aust., on Rhodophyllis, drift (Womersley, 13.i.1951; AD, A13508) and on Callophycus oppositifolius, 28 m deep (Shepherd, 23.x.1970; AD, A37478). 13 km S of Vivonne Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., on Rhodymenia, 50–70 m deep (Latz, 24.xi.1968; AD, A33008).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: Rottnest I., W. Aust. (Huisman & Walker 1990, p. 419) to Kangaroo I., S. Aust., and possibly Tasmania. N.S.W.? (Millar & Kraft 1993: 36).

Taxonomic notes: A. pinnafolium appears to be a distinctive species of Antithamnion but reproductive features are still unknown.

A. pinnafolium was recorded with doubt from Natal by Norris & Aken (1985, p. 59).


ATHANASIADIS, A. (1996). Morphology and classification of the Ceramioideae (Rhodophyta) based on phylogenetic principles. Opera Botanica No. 128, pp. 1–216.

HUISMAN, J.M. & WALKER, D.I. (1990). A catalogue of the marine plants of Rottnest Island, Western Australia, with notes on their distribution and biogeography. Kingia 1, 349–459.

MILLAR, A.J.K. & KRAFT, G.T. (1993). Catalogue of marine and freshwater Red Algae (Rhodophyta) of New South Wales, including Lord Howe Island, South-western Pacific. Aust. Syst. Bot. 6, 1–90.

NORRIS, R.E. & AKEN, M.E. (1985). Marine benthic algae new to South Africa. S. Afr. J. Bot. 51, 55–65.

SILVA, P.C., BASSON, P.W. & MOE, R.L. (1996). Catalogue of the Benthic Marine Algae of the Indian Ocean. (University of California Press: Berkeley, Los Angeles & London.)

WOLLASTON, E.M. (1968).Morphology and taxonomy of southern Australian genera of Crouanieae Schmitz (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta). Aust. J. Bot. 16, 217–417.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIC complete list of references.

Author: E.M. Wollaston & H.B.S. Womersley

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (24 December, 1998)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIIC. Ceramiales – Ceramiaceae, Dasyaceae
©State Herbarium of South Australia, Government of South Australia

Illustrations in Womersley Part IIIA, 1998: FIGS 45A, B, 47 A–C.

Figure 45 image

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Fig. 45. A, B. Antithamnion pinnafolium (AD, A33008). A. Branch with pinnate whorl-branchlets. B. Pinnae with gland cells. C–E. Antithamnion hanovioides (C, AD, A56761; D, AD, A29280; E, AD, A 11171). C. Habit, on Posidonia australis. D. Pinnae with gland cells and a carposporophyte. E. A pinna with spermatangial clusters on cells of pinnules.

Figure 47 image

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Fig. 47. A–C. Antithamnion pinnafolium. A. Branch apex with developing whorl-branchlets. B. Pinna with branched basal pinnules and a gland cell on a reduced pinnule. C. Rhizoidal attachment organ. D–G Antithamnion diminuatum (AD, A13031). D. Habit. E. Pinna with branched pinnules and gland cells. F. Apex with carpogonial branches borne on basal cells of pinnae. G. A young carposporophyte. (All as in Wollaston 1968, courtesy of Aust. J Bot.)

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