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Anotrichium elongatum (Harvey) Baldock 1976: 548, figs 44–48, 86.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Order Ceramiales – Family Ceramiaceae – Tribe Griffithsieae


Callithamnion elongatum Harvey 1859b: 336; 1863: synop. liii.

Monospora? elongata (Harvey) De Toni 1903: 1302. De Toni & Forti 1923: 52. Lucas 1909: 48; 1929a: 24; 1929b: 52. Lucas & Perrin 1947: 331.

Neomonospora elongata (Harvey) Womersley 1950: 177; 1953: 38. Guiler 1952: 95. Shepherd & Womersley 1970: 135.

? Griffithsia? gracilis Harvey 1859b: 332. J. Agardh 1876: 71. DeToni 1903: 1287. Lucas 1909: 48; 1929a: 24. Sonder 1881: 11.

Monospora gracilis sensu Sonder 1881: 28. Lucas 1909: 48.

Corynospora elongata (Harvey) Kylin 1956: 583. May 1965: 364.

Thallus variable, soft in texture (Pl. 2 fig. 1) light red to dark red, subdichotomous with dense (Fig. 162C, D) or lax branching (Fig. 162A) or in spreading tufts (Fig. 162E) or with lateral tufts arising irregularly (Fig. 163B) or somewhat regularly from main axes (Fig. 163C), 2–30 cm high, filaments twisted together or loosely entwined with decurrent rhizoids. Attached by basal rhizoids; epilithic or epiphytic mainly on seagrasses. Structure. Cells cylindrical, variable in size, near the thallus apex 48–60 µm in diameter and L/D 6–8, in mid thallus 220–250 µm in diameter and L/D 3–6, near the thallus base 260–300 µm in diameter and L/D 2–5; filaments gradually attenuate towards apices.

Reproduction: Gametophytes dioecious. Female axes (Fig. 163D) 3-celled, subapical, displaced laterally by continued growth of the vegetative cell, flanked by 2 caducous synchronic, hair-like laterals; procarp systems (Fig. 163E) subapical, each with an abaxial sterile cell and an adaxial supporting cell bearing a sterile cell apically and a recurved, 4-celled carpogonial branch laterally; hypogenous cell enlarging, becoming pyriform (Fig. 163F), 160–240 µm in diameter and L/D 1–2 and producing 1 (–2) whorls of 6–11, elongate, one-celled synchronic involucral branches 55–95 µm in diameter and L/D 4–6, incurved about the developing gonimoblast (Fig. 163G); fusion cell columnar, bearing 1–3 gonimolobes terminally, most cells of which become globose carposporangia, 20–40 µm in diameter. Carposporophyte 250–460 µm across. Spermatangia borne in solitary heads, initially ovoid, becoming cylindrical, 180–250 µm in diameter and L/D 1.8–2, on clavate pedicels 70–90 µm in diameter and L/D 1.5–1.8, single and adaxial from the upper ends of many cells near the thallus apex; each head with 3 elongate axial cells each bearing 4–6 periaxial cells dividing polychotomously several times, the ultimate cells producing spermatia apically.

Tetrasporangia (Fig. 163H) single, terminal on clavate pedicels 35–45 µm in diameter and L/D 1–1.5, produced successively in groups of 3–7 from the upper, adaxial shoulder of most cells near the thallus apex, globose, 70–85 µm in diameter, tetrahedrally divided.

Type from Georgetown, Tasmania, (Harvey); lectotype in Herb. Harvey, TCD, Alg. Aust. Exsicc. 534J.

Selected specimens: Victor Harbor, S. Aust., on Amphibolis , drift (Baldock, 13. vii.1963; AD, A26525). West I., S. Aust., 22–38 m deep (Shepherd, 8.x.1966; AD, A30804). Seal Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., epiphytic on algae, drift (Baldock, 21.i.1965; AD, A28612), Pennington Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., epiphytic in the Jania fastigiata-Cystophora association, lower eulittoral (Womersley, 20.v.1945; AD, A2591). Port MacDonnell, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 29.ix.1996; AD, A66634) and drift in harbour (Womersley, 20.viii.1984; AD, A55716 -"Marine Algae of Southern Australia" No. 315). Waldegrave I., S. Aust., 22 m deep, (Shepherd, 23.x.1970; AD, A37404). Victor Harbor, S. Aust., 6–9 m deep (Edyvane, 8.viii.1982; AD, A60656). Robe, S. Aust., lower eulittoral (Womersley, 30.x.1993; AD, A63206). Port Denison, W. Aust., on seagrass, 0–5m deep (Kraft, 14.xii.1971; AD, A41176). Redcliff Point, upper Spencer Gulf, S. Aust., 7 m deep (Johnson, 27.vi.1978; AD, A50475). Port Elliott, S. Aust., drift (Baldoek, 4.v.1963; AD, A26366). Safety Bay, W. Aust., drift (Womersley, 18.viii.1979; AD, A50773). Wedge I., S. Aust., mid eulittoral rock platform (Bolduck, 29.xii.1963; AD, A27324). Blackfellows Caves, SE S. Aust., drift (Loo, 3.xi.1997; AD, A67858).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: Archipelago, W. Aust. to Western Port, Vic. and around Tasmania.

Taxonomic notes: A common species from the lower eulittoral to 38m deep, with very variable vegetative features and morphological intergrades with Anotrichium licmophorum and A. crinitum.

Elongate form (Fig. 162A, B): branching lax with short lateral tufts arising irregularly from main axes.

Slender form (Pl. 2 fig. 1; Fig. 162D): branching dense, with many soft, fine, subdichotomous filaments. This superficially resembles Callithamnnion longinode Harvey (1855a, p. 53) from Warrnambool, Vic. (Watts), however, the type of that species is sterile, and the cells have L/D values of up to 20.

Spicate form (Fig. 162E): thallus 1–2 cm high, of spreading, stiff tufts ("twiggy"); epiphytic on seagrasses.

Regularly tufted form (Fig. 162C): entwined with rhizoids in lower thallus parts; possibly a hybrid of A. elongatum and A. licmophorum.

It is likely that Griffithsia gracilis Harvey (1859b, p. 332) from Georgetown, Tas. (type in TCD, sterile), published in the same account as Callithamnion elongatum from the same locality, is a synonym of Anotrichium elongatum. It is probably distinct from Corynospora gracilis Harvey (1855a, p. 559) from Garden I., W. Aust., which remains as a nomen dubium.


AGARDH, J.G. (1876). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 3, Part 1- Epicrisis systematic Floridearum, pp. i-vii, 1–724. (Weigel: Leipzig.)

BALDOCK, R.N. (1976). The Griffithsieae group of the Ceramiaceae (Rhodophyta) and its southern Australian representatives. Aust. J. Bot. 24, 509–593.

DE TONI, G.B. & FORTI, A. (1923). Alghe di Australia, Tasmania e Nouva Zelanda. Mein. R. Inst. Veneto Sci., Lett. Arti 29, 1–183, Plates 1–10.

DE TONI, G.B. (1903). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 4. Florideae. Sect. 3, pp. 775–1521 + 1523–1525. (Padua.)

GUILER, E.R. (1952). The marine algae of Tasmania. Checklist with localities. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasmania 86, 71–106.

HARVEY, W.H. (1855a). Some account of the marine botany of the colony of Western Australia. Trans. R. Jr. Acad. 22, 525–566.

HARVEY, W.H. (1859b). Algae. In Hooker, J.D., The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage. III. Flora Tasmaniae. Vol. II, pp. 282–343, Plates 185–196. (Reeve: London.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1863). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 5, Plates 241–300, synop., pp. i-lxxiii. (Reeve: London.)

KYLIN, H. (1956). Die Gattungen der Rhodophyceen. (Gleerups: Lund.)

LUCAS, A.H.S. & PERRIN, F. (1947). The Seaweeds of South Australia. Part 2. The Red Seaweeds. (Govt Printer: Adelaide.)

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1909). Revised list of the Fucoideae and Florideae of Australia. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 34, 9–60.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1929a). The marine algae of Tasmania. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasm. 1928, 6–27.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1929b). A census of the marine algae of South Australia. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 53, 45–53.

MAY, V. (1965). A census and key to the species of Rhodophyceae (red algae) recorded from Australia. Contr. N.S.W. natn. Herb. 3, 349–429.

SHEPHERD, S.A. & WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1970). The sublittoral ecology of West Island, South Australia: I. Environmental Features and algal ecology. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 94, 105–137, p11.

SONDER, O.W. (1881). In Mueller, F., Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae. Supplementum ad volumen undecinum: Algae Australianae hactenus cognitae, pp. 1–42, 105–107. (Melbourne.)

WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1950). The marine algae of Kangaroo Island. III. List of Species 1. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 73, 137–197.

WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1953). The Archipelago of the Recherche. 3b. Marine Algae. Aust. Geogr. Soc. Rep. No. 1, Part 3B, pp. 36–38.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIC complete list of references.

Author: R. N. Baldock

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (24 December, 1998)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIIC. Ceramiales – Ceramiaceae, Dasyaceae
©State Herbarium of South Australia, Government of South Australia

Illustrations in Womersley Part IIIA, 1998: PLATE 2 fig. 1; FIGS 162 A–E, 163 D–H.

Plate 2 image

Plate 2   enlarge

PLATE 2 fig. 1. Anotrichium elongatum at Robe, S. Aust. (AD, A63206).
fig. 2. Euptilota articulata at Rottnest I., W.Aust. (MURU, JH727). Photo: J.M. Huisman.
fig. 3. Ceramium rubrum at Cloudy Lagoon, SE Tas. (AD, A64230). Photo: G. Edgar.
fig. 4. Ceramium excellens at Cloudy Lagoon, SE Tas. (AD, A64234). Photo: G. Edgar.

Figure 162 image

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Fig. 162. Anotrichium elongatum: variation in morphology. A. (AD, A26525), elongate form. B. (AD, A66634), detail of elongate form. C. (AD, A27324), regularly tufted form. D. (AD, A37404), slender form. E. (AD, A41176), spicate form.

Figure 163 image

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Fig. 163. A–C. Anotrichium crinitum. (A, AD, A24403; B, AD, A 32723; C, AD, A45400). A. Mature carposporophytes. B. Developing spermatangial heads. C. Corymbose branches bearing pedicellate tetrasporangia. D–H Anotrichium elongatum (D–G, AD, A3140; H, AD, A2591). D. Origin of the female axis. E. Mature procarp. F. Developing carposporophyte (front involucral branch removed for clarity). G. Mature carposporophytes. H. Clusters of pedicellate tetrasporangia. (A, C–H, as in Baldock 1976, courtesy of Aust. J. Bot., B by Baldock.)

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