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Anotrichium crinitum (Kützing) Baldock 1976: 552, figs 54, 55, 88.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Order Ceramiales – Family Ceramiaceae – Tribe Griffithsieae


Griffithsia crinita Kützing 1862: 7, p1. 21a-c.

Griffithsia setacea sensu Harvey 1844: 450. Tisdall 1898: 502. (NON C. Agardh 1817: xxviii.)

Griffithsia setacea var. tasmanica Kützing 1849: 660.

Griffithsia setacea var. filiformis Harvey 1855b: 258.

Callithamnion griffithsioides sensu Harvey 1859b: 336; 1860: pl. 160. (NON Sonder 1855: 512.)

Monospora griffithsioides sensu De Toni 1903: 1032; 1924: 468. De Toni & Forti 1923: 53. Ewart 1907: 91. Lucas 1909: 48; 1929b: 52. Lucas & Perrin 1947: 331. Mazza 1910: no. 368.

Neomonospora griffithsioides sensu Womersley 1950: 177. Guiler 1952:95. Shepherd & Womersley 1970: 135.

Corynospora griffithsioides sensu Kylin 1956: 583.

Griffithsia sonderiana sensu Sonder 1881: 11. Tisdall 1898: 502. Wilson 1892: 186. (NON J. Agardh 1876: 62.)

Thallus (Fig. 161C) in dense tufts 5–17 (–20) cm high, coarse in texture, when sterile light red, subdichotomous and fastigiate, when fertile, dark red, tufted, with tetrasporangial filaments ending in condensed, corymbose branches (Fig. 163C); basal filaments twisted together and entwined with dense, decurrent, anastomosing rhizoids from the lower ends of cells, forming a rope-like mass 6–10 mm across. Attached by rhizoids; epilithic. Structure. Apical cells conical to cylindrical, 20–22 µm in diameter, subapical cells cylindrical, 100–130 µm in diameter and L/D 1.6–1.8; in mid thallus cells robust, 320–450 µm in diameter and L/D 3.5–5, axial cells obscured by rhizoids near the thallus base.

Reproduction: Gametophytes dioecious. Female axes 3-celled, subapical, displaced laterally by the continued growth of the vegetative axes, flanked by a pair of caducous, synchronic, hair-like laterals; procarp systems subapical, each with a sterile lateral cell abaxially and an adaxial supporting cell bearing a sterile cell apically, and a recurved, 4-celled carpogonial branch laterally; hypogenous cell enlarging, becoming pyriform, 200–230 µm in diameter and L/D 1.3–1.7, producing from its upper shoulders a whorl of 12–13 one-celled synchronic involucral branches incurved about the developing gonimoblast; fusion cell columnar bearing 1–3 gonimolobes terminally, most cells of which become angular-globose carposporangia, 25–35 .t.rn in diameter; growth of adjacent vegetative filaments is slow so that mature carposporophytes lie 5–10 cells below the thallus apex and vegetative branches are curved over them (Fig. 163A). Carposporophytes 350–600 uni across. Spermatangia borne in heads (Fig. 163B) 180–280 µm in diameter and L/D 1.5–2.3, on clavate pedicels 70–120 µm in diameter and L/D 1.5–1.8, singly and adaxially from the upper ends of most cells of terminal, condensed, branch tufts; each head with 3 elongate axial cells each bearing 4–5 periaxial cells dividing polychotomously several times, the ultimate cells producing spermatia apically; adjacent vegetative branches initially inflexed, enclosing the developing heads, later reflexed, spreading and corymbose.

Tetrasporangia single, terminal on short pedicels 35–37 µm in diameter and L/D 1.2–1.3, produced adaxially in groups of 1 (–3) from most cells of terminal, condensed branch tufts which are initially inflexed, later reflexed forming distinct corymbose branch systems (Fig. 163C), globose, 95–105 µm in diameter, tetrahedrally divided.

Type from Tasmania (Gunn); lectotype in Herb. Kützing, L, 941, 61 ... 119.

Selected specimens: Waldegrave I., S. Aust., 30 m deep (Branden, 3.vii.1987; AD, A57598). Elliston, S. Aust., 17 m deep (Shepherd, 12.v.1971; AD, A38668) and 9 m deep (Shepherd, 28.x.1972; AD, A42814). Vivonne Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 2.i.1949; AD, A10637). Robe, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 24.viii.1960; AD, A24403), lower eulittoral-upper sublittoral in shaded regions (Baldock, 18.v.1964; AD, A27860), and upper sublittoral pools (Womersley, 9.ix.1968; AD, A32723). West I., S. Aust., 13 m deep (Shepherd, 3.i.1966; AD, A30353). Portland, Vic., 8–10 m deep (Owen, 2.ix.1971; AD, A39675). Port Phillip, Vic., 13 m deep (Womersley, 9.viii.1959; AD, A23086). Crawfish Rock, Westernport, Vic., 4m deep (Watson, 29.v.1974; AD, A45400), 6m deep (Watson, 26.iv.1969; AD, A34337), 5–10 m deep (Watson, 29.viii.1971; AD, A39394) and 8 m deep (Watson, 28.vi.1974; AD, A45439). D' Entrecasteaux Channel, Tas., 10 m deep (Shepherd, 18.i i.1972; AD, A41698). Palmerston, New Zealand, drift (Parsons, 10.ii.1981; AD, A53290).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: Waldegrave I., S. Aust. to Ocean Grove, Vic. (Tisdall 1898, p. 502), King I., Bass Strait (Ewart 1907, p. 91), Tasmania, Port Hacking, N.S.W. (Watson 1979, p. 233; Millar & Kraft 1993: 35). Chatham I. (Laing 1905, p. 390), Stewart I. (Adams et al. 1974: 230) and S island of New Zealand.

Taxonomic notes: A. crinitum is readily distinguished when tetrasporangial by the fertile corymbose branches. Sterile plants, however, resemble Griffithsia teges, although filaments are usually narrower in A. crinitum. Plants with slender filaments intergrade with A. elongatum, although filaments tend to be more robust with obtuse apices and conical not cylindrical apical cells in A. crinitum.


ADAMS, N.M., CONWAY, E. & NORRIS, R.E. (1974). The marine algae of Stewart Island. A list of species. Rec. Dom. Mus. (Wellington) 8(14), 185–245.

AGARDH, C.A. (1817). Synopsis Algarum Scandinaviae. (Berling: Lund.)

AGARDH, J.G. (1876). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 3, Part 1- Epicrisis systematic Floridearum, pp. i-vii, 1–724. (Weigel: Leipzig.)

BALDOCK, R.N. (1976). The Griffithsieae group of the Ceramiaceae (Rhodophyta) and its southern Australian representatives. Aust. J. Bot. 24, 509–593.

DE TONI, G.B. & FORTI, A. (1923). Alghe di Australia, Tasmania e Nouva Zelanda. Mein. R. Inst. Veneto Sci., Lett. Arti 29, 1–183, Plates 1–10.

DE TONI, G.B. (1903). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 4. Florideae. Sect. 3, pp. 775–1521 + 1523–1525. (Padua.)

DE TONI, G.B. (1924). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 6. Florideae. (Padua.)

EWART, A.J. (1907). Notes on a collection of marine algae from King Island. Vic. Nat. 23, 90–92.

GUILER, E.R. (1952). The marine algae of Tasmania. Checklist with localities. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasmania 86, 71–106.

HARVEY, W.H. (1844). Algae of Tasmania. Lond. J. Bot. 3, 428–454.

HARVEY, W.H. (1855b). Short characters of some new genera and species of algae discovered on the coast of the Colony of Victoria, Australia. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 15 (ser. 2), 332–336.

HARVEY, W.H. (1859b). Algae. In Hooker, J.D., The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage. III. Flora Tasmaniae. Vol. II, pp. 282–343, Plates 185–196. (Reeve: London.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1860). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 3, Plates 121–180. (Reeve: London.)

KÜTZING, F.T. (1849). Species Algarum. (Leipzig.)

KÜTZING, F.T. (1862). Tabulae Phycologicae. Vol 12. (Nordhausen.)

KYLIN, H. (1956). Die Gattungen der Rhodophyceen. (Gleerups: Lund.)

LAING, R.M. (1905). On the New Zealand species of Ceramiaceae. Trans. Proc. N.Z. Inst. 37, 384–408, Plates 24–31.

LUCAS, A.H.S. & PERRIN, F. (1947). The Seaweeds of South Australia. Part 2. The Red Seaweeds. (Govt Printer: Adelaide.)

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1909). Revised list of the Fucoideae and Florideae of Australia. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 34, 9–60.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1929b). A census of the marine algae of South Australia. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 53, 45–53.

MAZZA, A. (1910). Saggio di Algologia Oceanica. Nuova Notarisia 21, Nos. 309–368.

MILLAR, A.J.K. & KRAFT, G.T. (1993). Catalogue of marine and freshwater Red Algae (Rhodophyta) of New South Wales, including Lord Howe Island, South-western Pacific. Aust. Syst. Bot. 6, 1–90.

SHEPHERD, S.A. & WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1970). The sublittoral ecology of West Island, South Australia: I. Environmental Features and algal ecology. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 94, 105–137, p11.

SONDER, O.W. (1855). Algae annis 1852 et 1853 collectae. Linnaea 26, 506–528.

SONDER, O.W. (1881). In Mueller, F., Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae. Supplementum ad volumen undecinum: Algae Australianae hactenus cognitae, pp. 1–42, 105–107. (Melbourne.)

TISDALL, H.T. (1898). The algae of Victoria. Rep. 7th Meet. Aust. Ass. Adv. Sci., Sydney, 1898, pp. 493–516.

WATSON, J.E. (1979). Biota of a temperate shallow water reef. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 103(4), 227–235.

WILSON, J.B. (1892). Catalogue of algae collected at or near Port Phillip Heads and Western Port. Proc. R. Soc. Vict. 4, 157–190.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIC complete list of references.

Author: R. N. Baldock

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (24 December, 1998)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIIC. Ceramiales – Ceramiaceae, Dasyaceae
©State Herbarium of South Australia, Government of South Australia

Illustrations in Womersley Part IIIA, 1998: FIGS 161C, 163 A–C.

Figure 161 image

Figure 161   enlarge

Fig. 161. A, B. Anotrichium licmophorum (AD, A28579). A. Habit. B. Detail of the regular, alternate, lateral tufts. C. Anotrichium crinitum (AD, A 24403). Habit. (A, C, as in Baldock 1976, courtesy of Aust. J. Bot.)

Figure 163 image

Figure 163   enlarge

Fig. 163. A–C. Anotrichium crinitum. (A, AD, A24403; B, AD, A 32723; C, AD, A45400). A. Mature carposporophytes. B. Developing spermatangial heads. C. Corymbose branches bearing pedicellate tetrasporangia. D–H Anotrichium elongatum (D–G, AD, A3140; H, AD, A2591). D. Origin of the female axis. E. Mature procarp. F. Developing carposporophyte (front involucral branch removed for clarity). G. Mature carposporophytes. H. Clusters of pedicellate tetrasporangia. (A, C–H, as in Baldock 1976, courtesy of Aust. J. Bot., B by Baldock.)

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