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Neogoniolithon brassica-florida (Harvey) Setchell & Mason 1943: 91.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Class Florideophyceae – Order Corallinales – Family Corallinaceae – Subfamily Mastophoroideae

Selected citations: Woelkerling et al. 1993: 323, figs 7–11. Verheij 1993b: 53, figs 51–57; 1994: 113, figs 51–57.


Melobesia brassica-florida Harvey 1849: 110.

Lithothamnion fosliei Heydrich 1897a: 58, pl. 3 figs 9–11, text fig. 1.

Lithophyllum fosliei (Heydrich) Heydrich 1897b: 410.

Archaeolithothamnion fosliei (Heydrich) Foslie 1898: 4.

Goniolithon fosliei (Heydrich) Foslie 1903: 470.

Neogoniolithon fosliei (Heydrich) Setchell & Mason 1943: 90. Penrose 1992b: 338, figs 1–29

Goniolithon finitimum Foslie 1908:8.

Neogoniolithon finitimum (Foslie) Setchell & Mason 1943: 91. Penrose 1990: 191.

Thallus encrusting, warty, lumpy or fruticose, 0.2–40 mm thick, epilithic or epizoic and affixed by cell adhesion, or unattached and free-living as rhodoliths. Structure pseudoparenchymatous; organisation dorsiventral in crustose portions and radial in protuberant branches; construction monomerous, consisting of a single system of branched filaments that collectively contribute to a ventrally or centrally situated core, and a peripheral region where portions of core filaments or their derivatives curve outwards towards the thallus surface, each filament composed of cells 10–20 µm in diameter and 10–40 µm long; epithallial cells terminating filaments at the thallus surface, distal walls rounded or flattened but not flared; cells of adjacent filaments joined by cell-fusions, secondary pit-connections absent; trichocytes present or absent, if present appearing, in section, arranged in horizontal fields, horizontal rows, vertical rows, or occurring singly at the thallus surface, sometimes becoming buried within the thallus.

Reproduction: Vegetative reproduction by thallus fragmentation. Gametangia, carposporangia, tetrasporangia and bisporangia produced in uniporate conceptacles.

Gametangial plants dioecious or monoecious; carpogonia and spermatangia produced in separate conceptacles or in the same conceptacle. Carpogonia terminating 3-celled filaments arising from the female conceptacle chamber floor. Mature female-carposporangial conceptacle roofs protruding above the surrounding thallus surface, composed of 10–25 cells above the chamber, conceptacle chambers 460–630 µm in diameter and 500–710 µm high. Carposporophytes developing within older female conceptacles after karyogamy, when mature lacking a large central fusion cell and with short gonimoblast filaments bearing terminal carposporangia 25–85 µm in diameter and 56–90 µm high. Spermatangial filaments unbranched, arising from the floor, walls and roof of male conceptacle chambers, mature male conceptacle roofs protruding above the surrounding thallus surface, composed of 10–25 cells, conceptacle chambers 295–335 µm in diameter and 350–380 µm high.

Tetrasporangial and bisporangial conceptacle roofs protruding above surrounding thallus surface, 10–25 cells thick above the chamber, pore canals lined with protruding cells, conceptacle chambers 590–820 µm in diameter and 370–820 µm high; tetrasporangia and bisporangia scattered across the conceptacle chamber floor; each mature sporangium 20–70 µm in diameter and 110–165 µm long, zonately divided.

Type from Algoa Bay, South Africa (Bowerbank); lectotype in BM (algal box collection no. 78), designated by Penrose & Chamberlain (in Woelkerling 1992, p. 43).

Selected specimens: Jeannies Lookout, Rottnest I., W. Aust., 1–3 m deep (Woelkerling, 12.ii.1978; LTB, 10624). Point Valliant, Two People Bay, W. Aust., 0.5 m deep (Woelkerling, 2.ii.1978; LTB, 10724). Lucky Bay, Cape Le Grand, W. Aust., 0–3 m deep (Woelkerling, Platt & Jones, 9.ii.1984; LTB, 14343). Rossiter Bay, Esperance, W. Aust., 1–2 m deep (Woelkerling, 28.i.1978; LTB, 10740). 10 km E of Eyre, W. Aust., 1–2 m deep (Woelkerling, Platt & Jones, 3.ii.1984; LTB, 14135). Point Fowler (E shore), S. Aust., 2–3 m deep (Woelkerling, Platt & Jones, 14.ii.1984; LTB, 14457). Elliston, S. Aust., 6 m deep (Turner, 29.x.1981; LTB, 15366). Hansen Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., 0–1.5 m deep (Campbell & Penrose, 9.iv.1988; LTB, 15702, 15707). Cape Jaffa, S. Aust.I m deep (Campbell & Penrose, 18.ii.1987; LTB 15550). Beachport (W of Post Office Rock), S. Aust., 0–2 m deep (Campbell, Penrose & Woelkerling, 26.ii.1988; LT13, 15786). Blanket Bay, Cape Otway National Park, Vic., 4 m deep (Campbell, Penrose & May, 14.xi.1985; LTB, 15234). Ingoldsby Reef, Anglesea, Vic., reef top (Beanland, 26.ii.1983; LTB, 13506). Eagles Nest (E of Cape Patterson), Vic., upper sublittoral (Campbell, iii.1988; LTB, 16040). Walkerville, Vic., intertidal pools (Woelkerling, 28.xii.1978; LTB, 11754)

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: Indian Ocean; Pacific Ocean; Red Sea; tropical W. Aust. and Queensland.

In southern Australia, Rottnest I., W. Aust., to Walkerville, Vic.

Taxonomic notes: N. brassica-florida occurs commonly throughout southern Australia and often can be recognised in the field by its large conceptacles which protrude conspicuously above the surrounding thallus surface. Additional data on the species (as N. fosliei) have been provided by Penrose (1992b).


FOSLIE, M. (1908). Algologiske notiser. V. K. norske Vidensk. Selsk. Skr. 1908(7), 1–20.

HEYDRICH, F. (1897a). Corallinaceae, inbesondere Melobesieae. Ber. dt. bot. Ges. 15, 34–71, Plate 3.

HEYDRICH, F. (1897b). Melobesieae. Ber. dt. bot. Ges. 15: 403–420, Plate 18.

PENROSE, D.L. (1990). Taxonomic studies on Spongites and Neogoniolithon (Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta) in southern Australia. Unpublished PhD Thesis, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia.

PENROSE, D. (1992b). Neogoniolithon fosliei (Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta), the type species of Neogoniolithon, in southern Australia. Phycologia 31, 338–350.

SETCHELL, W.A. & MASON, L.R. (1943). Goniolithon and Neogoniolithon: Two genera of crustaceous coralline algae. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. Washington 29, 87–92.

VERHEIJ, E. (1993b). Marine Plants on the reefs of the Spermonde Archipelago, SW Sulawesi, Indonesia: Aspects of Taxonomy, Floristics, and Ecology. (Rijksherbarium/Hortus Botanicus: Leiden.)

VERHEIJ, E. (1994). Nongeniculate Corallinaceae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) from the Spermonde Archipelago, SW Sulawesi, Indonesia. Blumea 38, 95–137.

WOELKERLING, W.J., IRVINE, L.M. & HARVEY, A.S. (1993). Growth-forms in non-geniculate coralline red algae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta). Aust. Syst. Bot. 6, 277–293.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIB complete list of references.

Author: D.L. Penrose

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (28 June, 1996)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIIB. Gracilarialse, Rhodymeniales, Corallinales and Bonnemaisoniales
Reproduced with permission from The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIB 1996, by H.B.S. Womersley. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia.

Illustration in Womersley Part IIIA, 1996: FIG. 129.

Figure 129 image

Figure 129   enlarge

Fig. 129. Neogoniolithon brassica-florida (A, LTB, 14343; B, LTB, 15702; C, LTB, 10624; D, LTB, 15707). A. Epilithic plants with wart-like protuberances. B. Section of tetrasporangial conceptacle. C. Section of conceptacle containing spermatangia that have arisen from initials formed across the chamber floor and on the roof. D. Section of conceptacle showing part of a fusion cell with gonimoblast filaments formed at the dorsal surfaces of the fusion cell and bearing terminal carposporangia.

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