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Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet

Jania verrucosa Lamouroux 1816: 270, pl. 9 fig. 4.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Class Florideophyceae – Order Corallinales – Family Corallinaceae – Subfamily Corallinoideae – Tribe Janieae

Selected citations: Areschoug 1852: 559. De Toni 1905: 1856. Huisman & Walker 1990: 412. Johansen & Womersley 1994: 616, figs 15, 16, 37–39. Kützing 1849: 710.


Corallina verrucosa (Lamouroux) Kützing 1858: 38, pl. 80, fig. III.

Jania pedunculata Lamouroux 1816: 270, pl. 9 fig. 3. Areschoug 1852: 559. Chapman & Parkinson 1974: 177, fig. 54. De Toni 1905: 1856. Harvey 1863, synop.: xxix. Kützing 1849: 711. Sonder 1881: 21.

Corallina pedunculata (Lamouroux) Kützing 1858: 37, pl. 78, fig. II.

Jania crassa Lamouroux 1821: 23, pl. 69 figs 9, 10. Johansen 1976: 418. Millar 1990: 322, fig. 11C, D. Millar & Kraft 1993: 13. Yendo 1905: 39.

Jania micrarthrodia var. y crassa (Lamouroux) Areschoug 1852: 555.

Jania natalensis Harvey 1849a: 107. Chapman & Parkinson 1974: 176, pl. 58B. Dawson 1953: 118, pl. 27 figs 1, 2. De Toni 1905: 1856. Guiler 1952: 86. Sonder 1881: 21. Womersley 1950: 167; 1953: 37. Yendo 1905: 39.

Corallina natalensis (Harvey) Kützing 1858: 38, pl. 79c-f.

Thallus (Fig. 138A) light to medium red-brown, fading to grey-white, (2–) 3–5 (–10) cm high, usually densely tufted and fastigiate, loose and spreading in calm habitats. Fronds dichotomous in various planes at intervals of (2–) 5–15 (–20) intergenicula with occasional lateral branches below; angles at most dichotomies <30 degrees. Intergenicula terete, in lower parts of fronds (150–) 200–350 (–400) µm in diameter, in upper parts (120–) 150–220 (–240) µm in diameter, length variable (Fig. 138B), 0.4–3.0 (–4.0) mm long, LID 2–8 (–16). Holdfasts at first discoid and spreading, 0.5–6 mm in diameter, stolons plentiful, arising from lower parts of fronds, tending to recurve, 100–200 µm in diameter; epilithic, rarely epiphytic. Structure (Fig. 138C) of 4–20 (–25) tiers of medullary cells each 90–160 µm long per intergeniculum; cortex 2 (–3) cells thick; hairs common. Genicula 80–200 µm long.

Reproduction: Gametangial thalli dioecious. Female conceptacles amphoroid, external diameter 300–470 µm, internal diameter 240–325 µm, carposporangia subspherical, 65–100 µm in diameter. Male conceptacles (Fig. 138D) externally 450–600 µm long and 180–250 µm in diameter, chambers 120–180 µm in diameter, canals 60–100 µm long.

Tetrasporangial conceptacles (Fig. 138E) amphoroid, external diameter 240–600 (–700) µm, chamber diameter 160–400 µm; tetrasporangia 170–220 (–360) µm long and 40–80 µm in diameter.

Type from `Amerique Meridionale' ; holotype in Herb. Lamouroux, CN.

Selected specimens: King Head, Rottnest I., W. Aust., in shallow reef pools (Womersley, 6.ix.1979; AD, A50844). Cowaramup Bay, W. Aust., 2–3 m deep (Clarke & Engler, 1.ix.1979; AD, A50648). Waterloo Bay, S. Aust., 4 m deep (Shepherd, 29.x.1981; CUW 7267). Smooth Pool, W of Streaky Bay, S. Aust., upper sublittoral (Johansen 81–10–14, 25.x.1981; AD, A52754). Pondalowie Bay, S. Aust., lower eulittoral depressions (Womersley, 16.x.1989; AD, A59914 -"Marine Algae of southern Australia" No. 337a). Barker Rocks, Yorke Pen., S. Aust., lower eulittoral on platform edge (Womersley, 17.x.1989; AD, A59889 and A59887 -"Marine Algae of southern Australia" No. 337). Port Stanvac, S. Aust., lower eulittoral (Clarke, 16.xii.1977; AD, A50415). Port Noarlunga, S. Aust., pool edges on off-shore reef (Johansen 81–10–13a, 13.x.1981; AD, A52702). Shag Rock, American R. inlet, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., uppermost sublittoral (Womersley, 20.xii.1990; AD, A61184 -"Marine Algae of southern Australia" No. 337b). Petrel Cove, Victor Harbor, S. Aust., lower eulittoral pools (Womersley, 17.ix.1989; AD, A59704). Nora Creina, S. Aust., (Johansen 81–9–40a, 5.ix.1981; AD, A52580 and CUW 1714). Point Lonsdale, Vic., shallow reef pools (Womersley, 30.xi.1989; AD, A60016). Walkerville, Vic., eulittoral pools (Sinkora AI813, 4.xii.1973; AD, A53514). Guyton Point, Robbins I., Tas., low eulittoral (Wollaston & Mitchell, 23.ii.1964; AD, A27626). Half Moon Bay, Bicheno, Tas., upper sublittoral pools (Wollaston, 13.viii.1965; AD, A29588). Newport, N.S.W., upper sublittoral on reef (Womersley, 30.v.1950; AD, A13069).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: Rottnest I., W. Aust., around southern Australia and Tasmania to Coffs Harbour, N.S.W. (probably further north).

New Zealand; South Africa; California, U.S.A.; Baja California, Mexico; Peru.

Taxonomic notes: Jania verrucosa has more robust fronds than other southern Australian species of Jania, with intergenicula typically more than 200 µm in diameter, of variable length but usually with some more than 1 mm long, and with 4–20 (–25) tiers of medullary cells. Unlike other species, it is almost entirely epilithic, occurring in shallow eulittoral pools or on rocks near low tide level. Occasional specimens with mostly short intergenicula with four or five tiers of medullary cells per intergeniculum resemble J. rubens (Linnaeus) Lamouroux from Europe, but the latter is monoecious.

Jania verrucosa (usually reported as J. crassa) is widespread in tropical and subtropical areas. In studies in New Zealand, Chapman & Parkinson (1974, p. 176) incorrectly placed J. crassa as a synonym of Jania micrarthrodia. The Australian specimens are similar to those labelled J. crassa in AD from Kaikoura and the Bay of Islands (Lindauer, Alg. Nova-Zel. Exsicc. No. 16) in New Zealand. Jania verrucosa is the only species of Jania in the present account with a type locality outside southern Australia.

Although both Jania verrucosa and J. crassa were described by Lamouroux, the former preceded the latter (1816 vs 1821), although the latter name has been used more often. They are, however, almost certainly conspecific, at least in southern Australia.

Jania pedunculata was also described by Lamouroux (1816) from `Australasie', but the type is not present in the Lamouroux herbarium in Caen. According to R. Meslin (pers. comm. to HWJ, 1968), the type in Caen was probably lost during a reorganisation of the herbarium in 1956 and a search in 1967 (HWJ) for the types of Lamouroux failed to locate a type of J. pedunculata. However, a fragment reputedly in P was obtained by Bornet; we have not seen it. Kützing's illustration (1858, pl. 78f-m) of J. pedunculata shows a branch with the dimensions of J. verrucosa that has 8–11 tiers of medullary cells per intergeniculum.


ARESCHOUG, J.E. (1852). Ordo XII. Corallineae. In J.G. Agardh, "Species, Genera et Ordines Algarum". Vol. 2, Part 2, pp. 506–576. (Gleerup: Lund.)

CHAPMAN, V.J. & PARKINSON, P.G. (1974). The marine algae of New Zealand. Part III: Rhodophyceae. Issue 3: Cryptonemiales, pp. 155–278, Plates 51–94. (Cramer: Germany.)

DAWSON, E.Y. (1953). Marine red algae of Pacific Mexico. Part I. Bangiales to Corallinaceae subf. Corallinoideae. Allan Hancock Pacif. Exped. 17, 1–239.

DE TONI, G.B. (1905). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 4. Florideae. Sect. 4, pp. 1523–1973. (Padua.)

GUILER, E.R. (1952). The marine algae of Tasmania. Check List with localities. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasm. 86, 71–106.

HARVEY, W.H. (1849a). Nereis Australis, pp. 65–124, Plates 26–50. (Reeve: London.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1863). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 5, Plates 241–300, synop., pp. i-lxxiii. (Reeve: London.)

HUISMAN, J.M. & WALKER, D.I. (1990). A catalogue of the marine plants of Rottnest Island, Western Australia, with notes on their distribution and biogeography. Kingia 1, 349–459.

JOHANSEN, H.W. & WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1994). Jania (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) in southern Australia. Aust. Syst. Bot. 7, 605–625.

JOHANSEN, H.W. (1976). Family Corallinaceae. In Abbott, I.A. & Hollenberg, G.J., Marine Algae of California, pp. 379–419. (Stanford Univ. Press: Stanford.)

KÜTZING, F.T. (1849). Species Algarum. (Leipzig.)

KÜTZING, F.T. (1858). Tabulae Phycologicae. Vol. 8. (Nordhausen.)

LAMOUROUX, J.V.F. (1816). Histoire des Polypiers Coralligènes Flexibles. (Poisson: Caen.)

LAMOUROUX, J.V.F. (1821). Exposition Methodique des Genres de l'Ordre des Polypiers ... des Zoophytes d'Ellis et Solander. (Veuve Agasse: Paris.)

MILLAR, A.J.K. & KRAFT, G.T. (1993). Catalogue of Marine and Freshwater Red Algae (Rhodophyta) of New South Wales, including Lord Howe Island, South-western Pacific. Aust. Syst. Bot. 6, 1–90.

MILLAR, A.J.K. (1990). Marine Red Algae of the Coffs Harbour Region, northern New South Wales. Aust. Syst. Bot. 3, 293–593.

SONDER, O.W. (1881). In Mueller, F., Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae. Supplementum ad volumen undecinum: Algae Australianae hactenus cognitae, pp. 1–42, 105–107. (Melbourne.)

WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1950). The marine algae of Kangaroo Island. III. List of Species 1. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 73, 137–197.

WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1953). The Archipelago of the Recherche. 3b. Marine Algae. Aust. Geogr. Soc. Rep. No. 1, Part 3B, pp. 36–38.

YENDO, K. (1905). A revised list of Corallinae. J. Coll. Sci., Imp. Univ. Tokyo 20 (12), 1–46.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIB complete list of references.

Author: H.B.S. Womersley & H.W. Johansen

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (28 June, 1996)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIIB. Gracilarialse, Rhodymeniales, Corallinales and Bonnemaisoniales
Reproduced with permission from The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIB 1996, by H.B.S. Womersley. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia.

Illustration in Womersley Part IIIA, 1996: FIG. 138.

Figure 138 image

Figure 138   enlarge

Fig. 138. Jania verrucosa (A, B, AD, A50415; C, AD, A59889; D, E, AD, A59704). A. Habit. B. Branches with long intergenicula. C. Longitudinal section of branch with genicula and multi-tiered intergenicula. D. Male conceptacles. E. Tetrasporangial conceptacles. [A, B, as in Johansen & Womersley 1994.]

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