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Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet

Gloiocladia halymenioides (Harvey) Norris 1991: 592.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Class Florideophyceae – Order Rhodymeniales – Family Rhodymeniaceae

Selected citations: Huisman 1993: 17.


Horea halymenioides Harvey 1855a: 555; 1859a: pl. 673; 1863, synop.: xlv. J. Agardh 1876: 292; 1879: pl. 19 figs 1–4. Sonder 1881: 17. Tisdall 1898: 505. Wilson 1892: 180.

Gloioderma halymenioides (Harvey) J. Agardh 1872: 18. De Toni 1900b: 497. Huisman & Walker 1990: 415. Kylin 1931: 7. Lucas 1929b: 49. Lucas & Perrin 1947: 194, fig. 61. Reinbold 1899: 45. Searles 1984: 220. Womersley 1950: 174.

Horea flabelliformis Harvey 1855a: 555.

Horea wilsonis J. Agardh 1885: 38. Tisdall 1898: 505.

Gloioderma wilsonis (J. Agardh) De Toni 1900b: 496. Guiler 1952: 93. Kylin 1931: 7, pl. 1 fig. 2. Lucas & Perrin 1947: 192, fig. 60. Searles 1984: 220. Womersley 1950: 174.

Gloiocladia wilsonii (J. Agardh) Norris 1991: 592.

Thallus (Fig. 40A) medium to dark red-brown, (2–) 5–15 (–20) cm high, complanately branched with main branches subdichotomous to alternate, flat, 3–10 mm broad, decreasing to 1–2 mm broad near apices; branches pinnate with marginal laterals 2–10 (–20) mm long, often subpinnate; some plants with small surface proliferations. Holdfast discoid, 2–3 mm across; epilithic or on jetty piles. Structure multiaxial, developing a cortex 50–95 µm thick, of branched filaments 2–4 µm in diameter and 5–8 cells long, inner cells L/D 4–8, outer cells ovoid, arising from a layer 1–4 cells thick of tangentially ovoid cells 8–15 µm in diameter on the outer side of the medulla; transition from cortex to medulla sudden. Medulla 2–4 cells thick, cells ovoid, 50–200 (–350) µm in diameter, with frequent secondary pit-connections. Rhodoplasts discoid.

Reproduction: Gametangial thalli dioecious. Carpogonial branches (Fig. 37D) very small, 4-celled, borne on mid cortical cells; supporting cells enlarging post-fertilization with numerous thickened arms to cells of the erect filaments and bearing a 2-celled auxiliary cell branch, auxiliary cell ovoid, with a proteinaceous inclusion. Carposporophyte (Fig. 40D) dendroid, 250–360 µm across, with a basal fusion cell producing several erect arms bearing lobes of ovoid carposporangia 12–22 µm in diameter. Basal nutritive tissue prominent, erect filaments well-developed and relatively persistent. Cystocarps (Fig. 40B, C) external, mostly marginal or on short branchlets, 0.7–1.2 mm across with a rim of 2–6 prominent, acute, horns, ostiolate. Spermatangia (Fig. 40E) cut off from initials on outer cortical cells, ovoid, 1–2 µm in diameter,

Tetrasporangia (Fig. 40F) in scattered groups or in nemathecia on the central region of lesser branches, pit-connected to mid cortical cells, ovoid, 10–18 µm in diameter, decussately divided.

Type from Fremantle, W. Aust. (Harvey); holotype (Tray. Set 152) in Herb. Harvey, TCD.

Selected specimens: Esperance, W. Aust., drift (Firman, Dec. 1952; AD, A18944). Elliston, S. Aust., 11 m deep (Shepherd, 19.iv.1970; AD, A35863). Kangaroo Reef, Boston I., Port Lincoln, S. Aust., 5–6 m deep (Womersley, 28.ii.1959; AD, A22549). Port Stanvac, S. Aust., 12 m deep on pylons (Hergstrom, 24.iii.1971; AD, A38265). Port Noarlunga, S. Aust., 19 in deep on tyre reef (Branden, 26.iii.1987; AD, A57441); Muston, American R. inlet, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., 4–5 m deep (Shepherd, 29.xii.1977; AD, A48960). Vivonne Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., 3–6 m deep on jetty (Kraft, 15.iv.1973; AD, A43722). Pennington Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 25.i.1946; AD, A3124). Double Corner Beach, Portland, Vic., drift (Beauglehole, 22.vi.1952; AD, A21653). Queenscliff, Vic., drift (Norris, 21.i.1963; AD, A27485). Walkerville, Vic., drift (Sinkora A2171, 1.iii.1975; AD, A48393). Currie R., Tas., drift (Perrin & Lucas, March 1935; AD, A49706). Dover, Tas. (Perrin 760, 7.ix.1945; BM).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: Fremantle, W. Aust., to Walkerville, Vic., and around Tasmania.

Taxonomic notes: G. halymenioides is distinguished by its regularly pinnate or bipinnate habit with evenly tapering branches. It is found on relatively sheltered coasts, but especially where there is strong current flow, usually in depths of 2–20 m.

Horea flabelliformis Harvey, type from King George Sound, W. Aust., (lectotype in TCD, Harvey, Tray. Set. 341) is almost certainly a young plant of G. halymenioides.

G. wilsonis (J. Agardh) De Toni [type from Port Phillip Hds, Vic. (Wilson); lectotype in Herb. Agardh, LD, 25664] is regarded as a robust form of G. halymenioides.


AGARDH, J.G. (1872). Bidrag till Florideernes Systematik. Acta Univ. lund. 8, 1–60.

AGARDH, J.G. (1876). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 3, Part 1 — Epicrisis systematis Floridearum, pp. i-vii, 1–724. (Weigel: Leipzig.)

AGARDH, J.G. (1879). Florideernes morphologi. K. Svenska Vetensk. Akad. Handl. 15(6), 1–199, Plates 1–33.

AGARDH, J.G. (1885). Till algernes systematik. VII. Florideae. Acta Univ. lund. 21, 1–120, Plate 1.

DE TONI, G.B. (1900b). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 4. Florideae. Sect. 2, pp. 387–776. (Padua.)

GUILER, E.R. (1952). The marine algae of Tasmania. Check List with localities. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasm. 86, 71–106.

HARVEY, W.H. (1855a). Some account of the marine botany of the colony of Western Australia. Trans. R. Ir. Acad. 22, 525–566.

HARVEY, W.H. (1859a). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 2, Plates 61–120. (Reeve: London.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1863). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 5, Plates 241–300, synop., pp. i-lxxiii. (Reeve: London.)

HUISMAN, J.M. & WALKER, D.I. (1990). A catalogue of the marine plants of Rottnest Island, Western Australia, with notes on their distribution and biogeography. Kingia 1, 349–459.

HUISMAN, J.M. (1993). Supplement to the catalogue of marine plants recorded from Rottnest Island. In Wells, F.E., Walker, D.I., Kirkman, H. & Lethbridge, R. (Eds). The marine flora and fauna of Rottnest Island, Western Australia. Proc. Fifth Int. Mar. Biol. Workshop, pp. 11–18. (Western Australian Museum: Perth.)

KYLIN, H. (1931). Die Florideenordnung Rhodyméniales. Lunds Univ. Årsskr. N.F. Avd. 2, 27 (11), 1–48, Plates 1–20.

LUCAS, A.H.S. & PERRIN, F. (1947). The Seaweeds of South Australia. Part 2. The Red Seaweeds. (Govt Printer: Adelaide.)

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1929b). A census of the marine algae of South Australia. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 53, 45–53.

NORRIS, R.E. (1991). Some unusual marine red algae (Rhodophyta) from South Africa. Phycologia 30, 582–596.

REINBOLD, T. (1899). Meeresalgen von Investigator Street (Slid Australien), gesammelt von Miss Nellie Davey (Waltham, Honiton). Hedwigia 38, 39–51.

SEARLES, R.B. (1984). North Carolina marine algae. XII. Gloioderma rubrisporum sp. nov. (Rhodophyta, Rhodyméniales). Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 111, 217–221.

SONDER, O.W. (1881). In Mueller, F., Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae. Supplementum ad volumen undecinum: Algae Australianae hactenus cognitae, pp. 1–42, 105–107. (Melbourne.)

TISDALL, H.T. (1898). The algae of Victoria. Rep. 7th Meet. Aust. Ass. Adv. Sci., Sydney, 1898, pp. 493–516.

WILSON, J.B. (1892). Catalogue of algae collected at or near Port Phillip Heads and Western Port. Proc. R. Soc. Vict. 4, 157–190.

WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1950). The marine algae of Kangaroo Island. III. List of Species 1. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 73, 137–197.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIB complete list of references.

Author: H.B.S. Womersley

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (28 June, 1996)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIIB. Gracilarialse, Rhodymeniales, Corallinales and Bonnemaisoniales
Reproduced with permission from The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIB 1996, by H.B.S. Womersley. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia.

Illustrations in Womersley Part IIIA, 1996: FIGS 37D, 40.

Figure 37 image

Figure 37   enlarge

Fig. 37. A. Faucheopsis coronata (AD, A61466). Transverse section of cortex (post fertilization) with supporting cell, probable carpogonial branch and auxiliary cell branch. B. Gloiocladia fruticulosa (AD, A26723). Transverse section of cortex with supporting cell and probable carpogonial branch. C. Gloiocladia australe (AD, A33408). Transverse section of cortex with a supporting cell bearing probable lower cells of a carpogonial branch and a 3-celled auxiliary cell branch. D. Gloiocladia halymenioides (AD, A43722). Transverse section of cortex with a 4-celled carpogonial branch. E. Leptosomia rosea (AD, A63215). Section of cortex with an old carpogonial branch and young carposporophyte.

Figure 40 image

Figure 40   enlarge

Fig. 40. Gloiocladia halymenioides (A–D, F, AD, A43722; E, AD, A38265). A. Habit. B. Branches with cystocarps. C. Section of cystocarp with pericarpic horns. D. Carposporophyte, with basal nutritive tissue and erect filaments. E. Transverse section of male branch with spermatangia. F. Transverse section of tetrasporangial nemathecium.

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