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Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet

Delisea hypneoides Harvey 1859b: 305; 1860b: pl. 134.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Class Florideophyceae – Order Bonnemaisoniales – Family Bonnemaisoniaceae

Selected citations: J. Agardh 1876: 670. De Toni 1900b: 761. Guiler 1952: 85. Levring 1953: 520, figs 49–51. Lucas 1929a: 20; 1929b: 50. Lucas & Perrin 1947: 241, fig. 103. May 1965: 374. Reinbold 1898: 48; 1899: 47. Sonder 1881: 30. Tisdall 1898: 512. Wilson 1892: 169. Womersley 1950: 163.

Thallus (Fig. 153A) medium to dark red-brown, 10–40 cm high, much branched irregularly and alternately, with distichous branching only close to apices (Fig. 153B), branches slender, slightly to moderately compressed, 200–600 µm broad above, 0.5–1 mm broad and only slightly compressed below where often denuded of ramuli. Lesser branches with alternate ramuli, at first distichous near the apices but soon flexed so that the distichous arrangement is lost, ramuli terete, simple or with 1–3 branches, (0.5–) 1–2 (–3) mm long and 100–200 µm in diameter near their bases. Attachment to the host by curled branchlets with small discoid pads; epiphytic (on Amphibolis and various algae) or possibly epilithic. Structure uniaxial (Fig. 153C, D), with a small apical cell, the subapical cells each cutting off two pairs of lateral and transverse periaxial cells, the lateral of the first pair producing the more strongly developed filament forming the originally distichous and alternate ramuli, with the lateral cell of the second pair usually remaining ovoid and not forming a distinct filament, or occasionally developing to form an opposite ramulus; the transverse periaxial cells contribute to the cortex. Main branches (Fig. 153C, D) 12–20 cells thick, the axial filament 30–60 µm in diameter, developing a thin sheath of small cells (Fig. 153C); inner cortical cells ovoid, 40–100 µm in diameter, becoming thick walled and with few intermixed small cells; outer cortical cells angular, 4–8 µm across, usually with few, scattered, gland cells; hairs often profuse; older axes with a secondary cortex of anticlinal filaments. Rhodoplasts discoid, becoming ribbon like in inner cells.

Reproduction: Gametangial thalli dioecious. Carpogonial branches 3-celled, borne on the first cell of shorter lateral periaxial filaments (Levring 1953, fig. 51F). Carposporophyte (Fig. 153E) associated with the less well developed lateral periaxial filament, with a basal fusion cell, an adjacent group of darker staining (nutritive) filaments, and a short tuft of branched gonimoblast filaments with terminal elongate-ovoid carposporangia 20–35 µm in diameter. Cystocarps lying between ramuli, sessile and immersed, 500–800 µm across, with a thick pericarp (with internal branched cell filaments) and a protruding beak with a prominent ostiole. Spermatangial sori (Fig. 153F) covering lower parts of ramuli and on lesser branches, with the outer cortical cells cutting off 2–3 elongate, tapering initials (Fig. 153G) producing 2–3 elongate spermatangia 2–3 µm in diameter.

Tetrasporangia unknown.

Type from Georgetown, Tas. (Fereday); holotype in Herb. Harvey, TCD.

Selected specimens: Point Peron, W. Aust., on Amphibolis antarctica (Ducker, 15.ix.1973; MELU, 22429). Head of the Great Australian Bight, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 4.ii.1954; AD, A19198). D'Entrecasteaux Reef, S. Aust., 15–20 m deep (Shepherd, 27.iii.1980; AD, A52162). Egg I., Isles of St Francis, S. Aust., 32–38 m deep (Shepherd, 11.i.1971; AD, A38042). Pearson I., S. Aust., 22 m deep (Rowland, 29.iii.1988; AD, A58653). Althorpe I., S. Aust., 10–13 m deep (Baldock, 4.i.1964; AD, A27232). Marion Bay, Yorke Pen., S. Aust., 1 m deep (Womersley, 15.x.1988; AD, A59152). Yilki, Victor Harbor, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 31.xii.1993; AD, A63248). Victor Harbor, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 28.xii.1976; AD, A47838 -"Marine Algae of southern Australia" No. 152). Snug Cove, N coast Kangaroo I., S. Aust., 16–21 m deep (Mitchell, 16.ii.1960; AD, A24046). Stokes Bay, N coast Kangaroo I., S. Aust., upper sublittoral (Womersley, 15.i.1965; AD, A28940). Seal Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 21.i.1965; AD, A28594). Nora Creina, S. Aust., 3 m deep (Kraft 4442 & Johnson, 11.ii.1973; MELU). Double Corner Beach, Portland, Vic., drift (Beauglehole 462A, 22.vii.1951; AD, A21726). Walkerville, Vic., drift (Sinkora A1647, 23.ii.1972; AD, A43286). Erith I., Bass Strait, 5–7 m deep (Riddle, 20.ii.1990; AD, A60457). Bombay Rock, Tamar Est., Tas. (Perrin, April 1949; AD, A61900). Musselroe Bay, Tas. (Perrin, 7.ii.1948; AD, A47156).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: Point Peron, W. Aust., to Walkerville, Vic., and northern Tasmania.

Taxonomic notes: D. hypneoides is a more robust species than D. elegans, differing in having branched, flexed, ramuli which soon lose their complanate branching.


AGARDH, J.G. (1876). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 3, Part 1 — Epicrisis systematis Floridearum, pp. i-vii, 1–724. (Weigel: Leipzig.)

DE TONI, G.B. (1900b). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 4. Florideae. Sect. 2, pp. 387–776. (Padua.)

GUILER, E.R. (1952). The marine algae of Tasmania. Check List with localities. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasm. 86, 71–106.

HARVEY, W.H. (1859b). Algae. In Hooker, J.D., The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage. HI Flora Tasmaniae. Vol. II, pp. 282–320. (Reeve: London.)

LEVRING, T. (1953). The marine algae of Australia. I. Rhodophyta: Goniotrichales, Bangiales and Nemalionales. Arkiv för Bot. Ser. 2, 2, 457–530.

LUCAS, A.H.S. & PERRIN, F. (1947). The Seaweeds of South Australia. Part 2. The Red Seaweeds. (Govt Printer: Adelaide.)

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1929a). The marine algae of Tasmania. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasm. 1928, 6–27.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1929b). A census of the marine algae of South Australia. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 53, 45–53.

MAY, V. (1965). A census and key to the species of Rhodophyceae (red algae) recorded from Australia. Contr. N.S.W. natn. Herb. 3, 349–429.

REINBOLD, T. (1898). Die Algen der Lacepede und Guichen Bay (Süd Australien) und deren flatterer Umgebung, gesammelt von Dr. A. Engelhart-Kingston. II. Nuova Notarisia 9, 33–54.

REINBOLD, T. (1899). Meeresalgen von Investigator Street (Slid Australien), gesammelt von Miss Nellie Davey (Waltham, Honiton). Hedwigia 38, 39–51.

SONDER, O.W. (1881). In Mueller, F., Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae. Supplementum ad volumen undecinum: Algae Australianae hactenus cognitae, pp. 1–42, 105–107. (Melbourne.)

TISDALL, H.T. (1898). The algae of Victoria. Rep. 7th Meet. Aust. Ass. Adv. Sci., Sydney, 1898, pp. 493–516.

WILSON, J.B. (1892). Catalogue of algae collected at or near Port Phillip Heads and Western Port. Proc. R. Soc. Vict. 4, 157–190.

WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1950). The marine algae of Kangaroo Island. III. List of Species 1. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 73, 137–197.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIB complete list of references.

Author: H.B.S. Womersley

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (28 June, 1996)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIIB. Gracilarialse, Rhodymeniales, Corallinales and Bonnemaisoniales
Reproduced with permission from The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIB 1996, by H.B.S. Womersley. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia.

Illustration in Womersley Part IIIA, 1996: FIG. 153.

Figure 153 image

Figure 153   enlarge

Fig. 153. Delisea hypneoides (A, AD, A47838; B–F, AD, A63248; G, AD, A28594). A. Habit. B. Apex of branch. C. Transverse section of branch. D. Longitudinal flat section of branch. E. Cystocarp with carposporophyte. F. Spermatangial sori. G. Longitudinal section of branch with spermatangia.

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