Electronic Flora of South Australia
Electronic Flora of South Australia
Census of SA Plants, Algae & Fungi
Identification tools

Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet

Arthrocardia wardii (Harvey) Areschoug 1852: 551.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Class Florideophyceae – Order Corallinales – Family Corallinaceae – Subfamily Corallinoideae – Tribe Corallineae

Selected citations: Guiler 1952: 87. Harvey 1863, synop.: xxix. Millar & Kraft 1993: 12. Sonder 1881: 20. Tisdall 1898: 507. Wilson 1892: 177. Womersley & Johansen 1988: 40, figs 1, 2A, B, 3A–C.


Amphiroa wardii Harvey 1849a: 99, pl. 38 (upper right); 1859b: 310. Yendo 1905: 8.

Cheilosporum wardii (Harvey) De Toni 1905: 1828. Lewis 1984: 13. Lucas & Perrin 1947: 397. May 1965: 356.

Amphiroa mallardiae Harvey 1849a: 99. Yendo 1905: 8.

Arthrocardia mallardiae (Harvey) Areschoug 1852: 552. Harvey 1863, synop.: xxix. Tisdall 1898: 507.

Cheilosporum mallardiae (Harvey) De Toni 1905: 1828. Lucas 1929a: 27. Lucas & Perrin 1947: 397. May 1965: 356. Sonder 1881: 20.

Thallus (Fig. 133A, B) light to medium red, robust, (2–) 5–12 cm high, with 2–10 complanately branched fronds, axes densely pinnate with lateral branches from most intergenicula; fertile branchlets often displaced from plane of branching. Intergenicula terete below and 0.5–1 (–1.5) mm in diameter, compressed above, not or slightly lobed, (1.5–) 1.7–3 (–4) mm long and 1.4–3.5 mm broad, L/W 1–1.5. Holdfast crustose, 2–15 mm across; epilithic. Structure. Intergenicula (Fig. 133C) with 20–40 (–45) tiers of medullary cells, each tier 50–75 (–95) µm long, cortical filaments of 6–12 cells, 6–10 µm in diameter and L/D 1–2, with 1 (–2) small epithallial cells. Genicula 80–250 pin long. Rhodoplasts laminate to discoid.

Reproduction: Gametangial thalli dioecious. Carposporangial conceptacles (Fig. 133D) with or without surmounting branchlets, chamber 300–500 µm in diameter, fusion cell 250–300 µm in diameter and 8–10 µm thick, bearing 2–4-celled carposporangial filaments, carposporangia subspherical to ovoid, 40–60 µm in diameter. Male conceptacles (Fig. 133E) beaked, usually without branchlets, chambers 250–350 (–390) µm in diameter, 260–330 µm high, canal 300–700 µm long.

Bisporangial (or tetrasporangial) conceptacles (Fig. 133F) common, terminal, surmounted by two branches, chambers 250–520 µm in diameter, 325–500 µm high; bisporangia 160–240 (–260) µm long, 40–65 µm in diameter; tetrasporangia 200–280 µm long, 60–90 µm in diameter.

Type from Port Phillip, Vic. (Mallard); holotype in TCD.

Selected specimens: Pondalowie Bay, S. Aust., 0 m deep on platform (AIMS-NCI, Q66C 2298–0, 5.ii.1989; AD, A59758). Cable Hut Bay, Yorke Pen., S. Aust., 5 m deep (Edyvane, 27.x.1993; AD, A64434). Cape Willoughby, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., upper sublittoral (Woelkerling, 25.ii.1979; LTB, 11563; AD, A57530). Port Fairy, Vic., upper sublittoral (Woelkerling, 6.i.1977; LTB, 11339; AD, A57534). Lawrence Rocks, Vic., 12–15 m deep (Watson, 30.xi.1981; AD, A52798, bisporangia, male). Lady Julia Percy I., Vic., 5–8 m deep (Shepherd, 3.i.1968; AD, A32317, male) and 3–6 m deep (Shepherd, 4.i.1968; AD, A32436, with mallardiae habit; AD, A32437, cystocarpic and male). Port Phillip, Vic., type of Amphiroa mallardiae (Mallard; TCD, isotype at BM). Rye (Ocean Beach), Vic., upper sublittoral (Woelkerling, 14.ii.1977; LTB, 11342; AD, A57536). Green Cape, N.S.W., 1–6 m deep (Shepherd, 13.ii.1973; AD, A43297 and A43298, bisporangial). Port Jackson, N.S.W. (Harvey, Alg. Aust. Exsicc. 453; NSW, A3281). Long Reef, N.S.W., below rock platform (May 2307, Feb. 1936; NSW). Green Point, Broken Bay, N.S.W., in wave-washed gutters and pools, upper sublittoral (Martin, 19.i.1969; NSW, A3284). Tuggerah Lakes, N.S.W. (Lucas, April 1911; NSW, A3287). Norah Head, N.S.W., very low eulittoral (Pope, 13.xii.1947; AD, A10772). Fluted Cape, Bruny I., Tas., 16 m deep (Shepherd, 10.ii.1972; AD, A41485). Lady Bay, Southport, Tas., 2–3 m deep (Brown & Kenchington, 14.x.1986; AD, A57658, tetrasporangial).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: From Pondalowie Bay, S. Aust., to Norah Head, N.S.W. and around Tasmania.

New Zealand?

Taxonomic notes: A. wardii is predominantly a low-light plant, with most collections from 3–22 m deep or from shaded upper sublittoral regions; however, several collections from just below low tide level are known.


ARESCHOUG, J.E. (1852). Ordo XII. Corallineae. In J.G. Agardh, "Species, Genera et Ordines Algarum". Vol. 2, Part 2, pp. 506–576. (Gleerup: Lund.)

DE TONI, G.B. (1905). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 4. Florideae. Sect. 4, pp. 1523–1973. (Padua.)

GUILER, E.R. (1952). The marine algae of Tasmania. Check List with localities. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasm. 86, 71–106.

HARVEY, W.H. (1849a). Nereis Australis, pp. 65–124, Plates 26–50. (Reeve: London.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1859b). Algae. In Hooker, J.D., The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage. HI Flora Tasmaniae. Vol. II, pp. 282–320. (Reeve: London.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1863). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 5, Plates 241–300, synop., pp. i-lxxiii. (Reeve: London.)

LEWIS, J.A. (1984). Checklist and bibliography of benthic marine macroalgae recorded from northern Australia. I. Rhodophyta. Dept. Defence, Materials Res. Lab., Melbourne, Vic. Report MRL-R-912.

LUCAS, A.H.S. & PERRIN, F. (1947). The Seaweeds of South Australia. Part 2. The Red Seaweeds. (Govt Printer: Adelaide.)

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1929a). The marine algae of Tasmania. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasm. 1928, 6–27.

MAY, V. (1965). A census and key to the species of Rhodophyceae (red algae) recorded from Australia. Contr. N.S.W. natn. Herb. 3, 349–429.

MILLAR, A.J.K. & KRAFT, G.T. (1993). Catalogue of Marine and Freshwater Red Algae (Rhodophyta) of New South Wales, including Lord Howe Island, South-western Pacific. Aust. Syst. Bot. 6, 1–90.

SONDER, O.W. (1881). In Mueller, F., Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae. Supplementum ad volumen undecinum: Algae Australianae hactenus cognitae, pp. 1–42, 105–107. (Melbourne.)

TISDALL, H.T. (1898). The algae of Victoria. Rep. 7th Meet. Aust. Ass. Adv. Sci., Sydney, 1898, pp. 493–516.

WILSON, J.B. (1892). Catalogue of algae collected at or near Port Phillip Heads and Western Port. Proc. R. Soc. Vict. 4, 157–190.

WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. & JOHANSEN, H.W. (1988). The genus A rthrocardia (Corallinaceae: Rhodophyta) in southern Australia. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 112, 39–49.

YENDO, K. (1905). A revised list of Corallinae. J. Coll. Sci., Imp. Univ. Tokyo 20 (12), 1–46.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIB complete list of references.

Author: H.B.S. Womersley & H.W. Johansen

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (28 June, 1996)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIIB. Gracilarialse, Rhodymeniales, Corallinales and Bonnemaisoniales
Reproduced with permission from The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIB 1996, by H.B.S. Womersley. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia.

Illustration in Womersley Part IIIA, 1996: FIG. 133.

Figure 133 image

Figure 133   enlarge

Fig. 133. Arthrocardia wardii (A, AD, A32317; B, AD, A32436; C, E, AD, A52798; D, F, AD, A64434). A. Habit of robust plant with proliferating adventitious branches. B. Habit of slender form. C. Longitudinal section of geniculum and part intergenicula. D. Longitudinal section of carposporangial conceptacle showing broad, thin fusion cell and peripheral carposporangia. E. Longitudinal section of male conceptacle. F. Longitudinal section of branch with a bisporangial conceptacle.

Disclaimer Copyright Disclaimer Copyright Email Contact:
State Herbarium of South Australia
Government of South Australia Government of South Australia Government of South Australia Department for Environment and Water