Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet
Phylum Rhodophyta – Class Florideophyceae – Order Gigartinales – Family Phyllophoraceae
Selected citations: Lewis & Kraft 1979: 226, figs 2–7. Dixon & Irvine 1977b: 230, fig. 84. Millar & Kraft 1993: 23. Norris & Aken 1985: 58, fig. 8.
Petroglossum nicaeense (Lamouroux ex Duby)Schotter 1968: 75, figs 46–50.
Thallus (Fig. 83C, D) light to medium brown-red, with flat, simple to subdichotomous or irregularly laterally proliferous fronds 1–4 cm high and 2–4 mm broad, arising from slender, branched stolons (often within sponge or sediment), apices of main blades rounded (or with terete proliferations), proliferations basally constricted and terete to 2 mm broad. Structure multiaxial, with a medulla 4–8 cells thick, cells ovoid, 20–40 µm in diameter, and a cortex 2–3 cells thick, outer cells isodiametric, 4–6 µm across.
Reproduction: Sexual thalli dioecious. Carpogonial branches 4-celled, arising in the inner cortex, with the supporting cell acting as the auxiliary cell; carposporophyte (Fig. 83E) with several widely spaced large cells from which elongate gonimoblast processes radiate and bear short chains of ovoid carposporangia 7–10 µm in diameter, forming a swollen cystocarp with the thickened cortex forming a pericarp, non ostiolate. Spermatangia (Guiry & Hollenberg 1975, p. 152) in sori level with the thallus surface, cut off from surface cortical cells.
Tetrasporophytes (Fig. 83F) with son of tetrasporangia near frond apices, with catenate rows of ovoid to elongate-ovoid tetrasporangia, 6–10 µm in diameter, cruciately divided.
Lectotype from Marseilles, France; in STR (see Guiry & Hollenberg 1975, p. 153).
Selected specimens: Glenelg, S. Aust., drift on Amphibolis (Kraft, 22.xii.1970; MELU, K3056; AD, A61719). Portland, Vic., 5–7 m deep on boulders (Kraft, 27.iv.1990; MELU, K8284; AD, A61720). Apollo Bay, Vic., 2–3 m deep in shade under jetty (Riddle, 6.ii.1990; AD, A60173). Queenscliff, Vic., 1.5 m deep on piles under MSL jetty (McCauley, 10.ii.1990; AD, A60152). Gellibrand Pile Light, Port Phillip Bay, Vic., 5–7 m deep on mussels (O'Brien & Kraft, 30.x.1975; MELU, A39480), 5–9 m deep at base of light (Kraft & Lewis, 28.i.1976; MELU, A23162) and 5–7 m deep on rocks and mussels (J. Lewis, 19.v.1976; MELU, A39482). Portsea, Port Phillip Bay, Vic., 3–5 m deep on jetty piles (O'Brien & Kraft, 16.iii.1979; MELU, A39479). Jibbon Reef, off Port Hacking, N.S.W., 23 m deep on sandstone (Watson, Sept. 1976; MELU, A23396). Orford, Tas., 4–5 m deep (Kraft, 15.x i i.1992 ; MELU, A40590).
Distribution: Mediterranean, Europe, Britain, South Africa.
In southern Australia, Apollo Bay, Vic., to Jibbon Reef, off Port Hacking, N.S.W., and SE Tasmania, often on or near jetty piles.
Taxonomic notes: This probable adventive was first recognised by Lewis & Kraft (1979), and appears to have established itself on SE Australian coasts, often under jetties etc.
DIXON, P.S. & IRVINE, L.M. (1977b). Seaweeds of the British Isles. Vol. 1, Rhodophyta. Part I, Introduction, Nemaliales, Gigartinales. [British Museum (N.H.): London.]
GUIRY, M.D. & HOLLENBERG, G.J. (1975). Schottera gen. nov. and Schottera nicaeensis (Lamour. ex Duby) comb. nov. (= Petroglossum nicaeense (Lamour. ex Duby)Schotter) in the British Isles. Br. phycol. J. 10, 149–164.
LEWIS, J.A. & KRAFT, G.T. (1979). Occurrence of a European red alga (Schottera nicaeensis) in southern Australian waters. J. Phycol. 15, 226–230.
MILLAR, A.J.K. & KRAFT, G.T. (1993). Catalogue of Marine and Freshwater Red Algae (Rhodophyta) of New South Wales, including Lord Howe Island, South-western Pacific. Aust. Syst. Bot. 6, 1–90.
NORRIS, R.E. & AKEN, M.E. (1985). Marine benthic algae new to South Africa. S. Afr. J. Bot. 51, 55–65.
SCHOTTER, G. (1968). Recherches sur les Phyllophoracees. Bull. Inst. Océanogr. Monaco 67, 1–99.
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIA complete list of references.
Womersley, H.B.S. (14 January, 1994)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIIA, Bangiophyceae and Florideophyceae (to Gigartinales)
Reproduced with permission from The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIA 1994, by H.B.S. Womersley. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia.
Illustration in Womersley Part IIIA, 1994: FIGS 83 C–F.
Figure 83 enlarge
Fig. 83. A, B. Stenogramme leptophylla (A, AD, A52029; B, AD, A22800). A. Habit. B. Transverse section of tetrasporangial thallus. C–F Schottera nicaeensis (C, F, MELU, A23162; D, MELU, A39482; E, MELU, A39480). C. Habit of plant with sub-apical tetrasporangial nemathecia. D. Habit of late summer frond with proliferations. E. Transverse section of mature carposporophyte. F. Transverse section of thallus with nemathecia of catenate chains of tetrasporangia. [C–F, as in Lewis & Kraft 1979.]
State Herbarium of South Australia