Electronic Flora of South Australia
Electronic Flora of South Australia
Census of SA Plants, Algae & Fungi
Identification tools

Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet

Rhodoglossum gigartinoides (Sonder) Edyvane & Womersley 1993: 238, figs 1–27.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Class Florideophyceae – Order Gigartinales – Family Gigartinaceae


Grateloupia gigartinoides Sonder 1855: 517.

Gigartina lanceolata Harvey 1860a: 326; 1863: pl. 288, synop.: xliii.

Rhodoglossum lanceolatum (Harvey) J. Agardh 1876: 186; 1885: 26. Kim 1976: 12, figs 27–36,53,54,126.

Iridaea foliifera Harvey 1860a: 326; 1863, synop.: xliv.

Rhodoglossum foliiferum J. Agardh 1876: 186; 1879: pl. xi figs 4–8; 1885: 26.

Iridaea polycarpa Harvey 1860a: 326; 1863, synop.: xliv.

Rhodoglossum polycarpum J. Agardh 1876: 186; 1879: pl. xi figs 1–3.

Rhodoglossum purpureum J. Agardh 1876: 188; 1885: 27.

Rhodoglossum tasmanicum J. Agardh 1879: pl. xii figs 1–4.

Rhodoglossum proliferum J. Agardh 1885: 27. Fuhrer et al. 1981: pl. 21.

Iridaea prolifera (J. Agardh) De Toni 1897: 190. Lucas 1909: 24; 1929a: 16.

Gigartina prolifera (J. Agardh) Kim 1976: 46.

Thallus (Fig. 91A–C) medium to dark red or red-purple, often bleached to yellow-brown, surface usually slightly lustrous when dry, erect to decumbent, (5–) 15–40 (–60) cm high, relatively thin, foliose and ovate-lanceolate or with several broadly ligulate fronds mostly 2–10 cm broad, often with marginal proliferations 5–20 mm broad and 1–4 cm long, margin entire, apices usually tapering, arising from a slender, compressed stipe, cuneate above. Holdfast small, discoid, 1–2 mm across; epilithic. Structure of a compact cortex of subdichotomous anticlinal filaments, the outer cells 1–2 µm in diameter and LID (1–) 2–4, and a medulla of slender anastomosing filaments.

Reproduction: Sexual thalli monoecious. Carpogonial branches (Fig. 93A) 3-celled, borne on inner cortical (supporting) cells which also bear 1–2 sterile cortical branches. Auxiliary cell derived from the supporting cell, developing the carposporophyte (Fig. 91D) from numerous gonimoblast filaments (Fig. 93B) which cut off laterally small groups of carposporangia (10–18 µm in diameter) , with distinct filamentous enveloping tissue which forms a translucent zone around the dark red carposporophyte; mature cystocarps globose, 2–3 mm in diameter, scattered and slightly protruding; ostiole absent. Spermatangia in inconspicuous, irregular, scattered sori, cut off from surface cortical cells.

Tetrasporangial sori (Fig. 91E) maculate, 0.5–1 mm in diameter, situated just within the cortex and outer medulla, with the outer surface more or less level with the cortical surface, with rows of tetrasporangia radiating inwards from the surface, the outer 2–3 cells sterile, tetrasporangia 30–40 tun in diameter, cruciately divided.

Type from Port Philip, Vic. (Mueller); holotype in MEL, 501415.

Selected specimens: Hamelin Bay, W. Aust., drift (White, July 1898; MEL, 652203). Stenhouse Bay, S. Aust., lower eulittoral (Womersley, 9.iv.1950; AD, A13197). Pennington Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., sublittoral fringe (Womersley, 16.i.1948; AD, A6531). Robe, S. Aust., drift (Edyvane, 6.ix.1984; AD, A55441); upper sublittoral pools, slipway reef (Womersley, 24.viii.1960; AD, A24429); and lower eulittoral near jetty (Womersley, 8.xii.1991; AD, A61520 -"Marine Algae of southern Australia" No. 360). Cape Lannes, S. Aust., lower eulittoral (Edyvane, 21.vii.1984; AD, A57129). Portarlington, Vic. (Sinkora A1474, 29.ii.1971; AD, A43241). Point Lonsdale, Vic., lower eulittoral (Womersley, 13.v.1982; AD, A57130). San Remo, Vic., drift (Sinkora A667, 11.vii.1970; MEL, 652161). Bombay Rock, Tamar Est., Tas., upper sublittoral (Womersley, 27.i.1949; AD, A10362). Orford, Tas. (Meredith; Herb. Agardh, LD, 23282, 23286, 23344).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: New Zealand (Wellington to Auckland Is).

Hamelin Bay, W. Aust., and Stenhouse Bay, S. Aust., to San Remo, Vic., and around Tasmania, in the lower eulittoral and upper sublittoral under slight to moderate wave action.

Taxonomic notes: Rhodoglossum gigartinoides and its synonyms have been discussed in detail by Edyvane & Womersley (1993).


AGARDH, J.G. (1876). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 3, Part 1 - Epicrisis systematis Floridearum, pp. i-vii, 1–724. (Weigel: Leipzig.)

AGARDH, J.G. (1879). Florideernes morphologi. K. Svenska Vetensk. Akad. Handl. 15(6), 1–199, Plates 1–33.

AGARDH, J.G. (1885). Till algemes systematik. VII. Florideae. Acta Univ. lund. 21, 1–120, Plate 1.

DE TONI, G.B. (1897). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 4. Florideae. Sect. 1, pp. 1–388. (Padua.)

EDYVANE, K.S. & WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1993). Morphology and taxonomy of Rhodoglossum gigartinoides (Sonder) comb. nov. (Gigartinaceae, Rhodophyta) from Australia and New Zealand. Phycologia 32, 237–250.

FUHRER, B., CHRISTIANSON, I.G., CLAYTON, M.N. & ALLENDER, B.M. (1981). Seaweeds of Australia. (Reed: Sydney.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1860a). Algae. In Hooker, J.D., The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage. 111. Flora Tasmaniae. Vol. II, pp. 321–343, Plates 185–196.

HARVEY, W.H. (1863). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 5, Plates 241–300, synop., pp. i-lxxiii. (Reeve: London.)

KIM, D.H. (1976). A study of the development of cystocarps and tetrasporangial sori in Gigartinaceae (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales). Nova Hedwigia 27, 1–146.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1909). Revised list of the Fucoideae and Florideae of Australia. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 34, 9–60.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1929a). The marine algae of Tasmania. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasm. 1928, 6–27.

SONDER, O.W. (1855). Algae annis 1852 et 1853 collectae. Linnaea 26, 506–528.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIA complete list of references.

Author: K.S. Edyvane & H.B.S. Womersley

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (14 January, 1994)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIIA, Bangiophyceae and Florideophyceae (to Gigartinales)
Reproduced with permission from The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIA 1994, by H.B.S. Womersley. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia.

Illustrations in Womersley Part IIIA, 1994: FIGS 91, 93A, B.

Figure 91 image

Figure 91   enlarge

Fig. 91. Rhodoglossum gigartinoides (A, AD, A24429; B, AD, A43241; C, E, AD, A55441; D, AD, A57129). A. Habit of cystocarpic plants, moderate water movement. B. Habit of cystocarpic plant from calm water. C. Habit of tetrasporangial plant, strong water movement. D. Section of cystocarp. E. Transverse section of thallus with young tetrasporangial sorus. [A–E as in Edyvane & Womersley 1993.]

Figure 93 image

Figure 93   enlarge

Fig. 93. A, .B. Rhodoglossum gigartinoides (AD, A57129). A. Cortical filaments with a supporting cell and a 3-celled carpogonial branch. B. Gonimoblast filaments bearing groups of carposporangia. C, D. Sarcothalia radula (AD, A58290). C. Cortical filaments with a supporting cell and a 3-celled carpogonial branch. D. Gonimoblast filaments with carposporangia. E–G. Sarcothalia insidiosa (E, G, AD, A56932; F, AD, A16198). E. Branchlets with cystocarps. F. Cystocarps with involucral pinnules. G. Branchlets with attachment haptera and tetrasporangial sori. H–J. Sarcothalia crassifolia (AD, A55439). H. Branch with cystocarps, I. Cystocarp with involucral ramuli. J. Branch with maculate tetrasporangial sori.

Disclaimer Copyright Disclaimer Copyright Email Contact:
State Herbarium of South Australia
Government of South Australia Government of South Australia Government of South Australia Department for Environment and Water