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Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet

Phacelocarpus peperocarpos (Poiret) Wynne, Ardré & Silva 1993: 41, figs 1–6.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Class Florideophyceae – Order Gigartinales – Family Phacelocarpaceae


Fucus pepricarpos Poiret 1808: 384.

Phacelocarpus labillardieri (Turner). Agardh 1852: 648; 1876: 399. Chapman 1979: 324, pl. 130. De Toni 1900: 391. Fuhrer et al. 1981: pl. 50. Harvey 1855b: 242; 1859b: 313; 1860b: pl. 163; 1863, synop.: xxxii. Kylin 1932: 52, fig. 14D. Millar & Kraft 1993: 22. Searles 1968: 15, fig. 5, pl. 2. Sonder 1853: 690; 1855: 522.

Fucus labillardieri Mertens ex Turner 1811: 8, pl. 137.

Sphaerococcus labillardieri (Turner) C. Agardh 1822: 296; 1824: 230.

Ctenodus labillardieri (Turner) Kützing 1843: 407, pl. 58 fig. II.

Ctenodus billardieri (Kützing) Hooker & Harvey 1847: 406.

Euctinodus labillardieri (Turner) Kützing 1849: 770; 1868: 24, pl. 67c-f.

Thallus (Fig. 136A) medium to dark red, (10–) 20–50 cm high, with a terete stipe 5–20 mm long and 1–2 (–3) mm in diameter, much branched complanately with long and short branches for 3–4 orders, branches 3–5 mm broad, rachides robust, terete below and 1–1.5 mm in diameter, mostly compressed and (500–) 600–1000 µm broad, with a well-developed midrib and marginal flanges. All branches bearing distichous, closely adjacent (almost touching near apices), compressed ramuli (Fig. 136E) tapering to a point, 300–600 µm in basal width and 1.5–2.5 mm long, separated by rounded sinuses mostly 150–500 µm wide. Holdfast discoid-conical, 2–10 mm across; epilithic. Structure uniaxial, developing a prominent axial filament with four periaxial cells, the lateral two developing into filaments with alternate ones forming the ramuli; rhizoids densely massed around the axial filament, forming the robust midrib. Cortex pseudoparenchymatous, inner cells ovoid and 30–60 µm in diameter, outer cells 1.5–2.5 µm in diameter and L/D 1–2; refractive cells absent or inconspicuous in the cortex; rhodoplasts discoid to elongate.

Reproduction: All reproductive bodies on the rachis margin (Fig. 136B–E), shortly to distinctly stalked. Sexual thalli dioecious. Procarps with a group of two 2-celled carpogonial branches and an auxiliary cell. Cystocarps (Fig. 136C) with a stalk 200–800 µm long, ovoid, bilabiate, 400–800 µm broad, with a thick pericarp along the ostiolar slit, enclosing the carposporophyte with a basal fusion cell and erect gonimoblast filaments with ovoid to clavate terminal carposporangia 6–10 µm in diameter. Spermatangial nemathecia (Fig.

Type probably from Tasmania; lectotype in CN (see Wynne, Ardré & Silva 1993).

Selected specimens: 16 km SE of Salisbury I., Recherche Arch., W. Aust., 40 m deep (Cahill, 6.v.1977; AD, A50727). Topgallant I., S. Aust., 35 m deep (Branden, 2.vii.1987; AD, A57556). Wedge I., S. Aust., 22–40 m deep (Baldock, 4.i.1964; AD, A27185). Port Elliot, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 18.x.1992; AD, A61763). Pennington Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., upper sublittoral (Womersley, 22.i.1948; AD, A6453). 1.3 km off Middle Point, Cape Northumberland, S. Aust., 15 m deep (Shepherd, 13.ii.1976; AD, A47007). Port MacDonnell, S. Aust., upper sublittoral pools (Womersley, 25.i.1967; AD, A31676). Lady Julia Percy I., Vic., 5–8 m deep (Shepherd, 3.i.1968; AD, A32407). Port Phillip Heads, Vic., 10 m deep (Watson, 8.iii.1985; AD, A57038 -"Marine Algae of southern Australia" No. 307). Walkerville, Vic., drift (Sinkora A1865, 8.xii.1973; AD, A53551). West Point, Erith I., Bass Strait, 20 m deep (Shepherd & R. Lewis, 10.v.1974; AD, A45199). Cape Surville, Forestier Pen., Tas., 12 m deep (Goldsworthy, 28.ii.1990; AD, A60443). Marion Bay, Tas., 3–5 m deep (Shepherd, 13.ii.1970; AD, A35603). Fluted Cape, Bruny I., Tas., 10 m deep (Shepherd, 12.ii.1972; AD, A42007). Green Cape, N.S.W., 16 m deep (Shepherd, 13.ii.1973; AD, A43033).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: New Zealand (var. novae-zelandiae Chapman).

Recherche Arch., W. Aust., to Collaroy, N.S.W., and the east coast of Tasmania, mainly in deep water on rough-water coasts.

Taxonomic notes: 136D) short-stalked, subspherical to ovoid and 400–700 µm in diameter, with spermatangia in channels separated by sterile tissue (Fig. 136F).

Tetrasporangial nemathecia (Fig. 136E) with short to moderate stalks, subspherical to ovoid, 400–700 µm in diameter, with tetrasporangia in channels (Fig. 136G), 25–35 µm long and 4–8 µm in diameter, zonately divided.

Three varieties of P. peperocarpos (as P. labillardieri) have been described: var. intermedius and var. macer by Harvey (1863, synop.: xxxii) and var. novae-zelandiae by Chapman (1979: 324, pl. 130). The types need further checking but the New Zealand variety is usually slenderer and has less common reproductive bodies than Australian specimens.

P. peperocarpos Poiret 1808 was shown by Wynne, Ardré & Silva (1993) to pre-date P. labillardieri (Turner) J. Agardh, and is probably based on Labillardière collections from SE Tasmania (the main region he visited within the known distribution of the species).


AGARDH, C.A. (1822). Species Algarum. Vol. 1, Part 2, pp. 169–398. (Berling: Lund.)

AGARDH, C.A. (1824). Systema Algarum. (Berling: Lund.)

AGARDH, J.G. (1852). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 2, Part 2, pp. 337–720. (Gleerup: Lund.)

AGARDH, J.G. (1876). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 3, Part 1 - Epicrisis systematis Floridearum, pp. i-vii, 1–724. (Weigel: Leipzig.)

CHAPMAN, V.J. (1979). The marine algae of New Zealand. Part DI Rhodophyceae. Issue 4: Gigartinales. (Cramer: Germany.)

DE TONI, G.B. (1900). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 4. Florideae. Sect. 2, pp. 387–776. (Padua.)

FUHRER, B., CHRISTIANSON, I.G., CLAYTON, M.N. & ALLENDER, B.M. (1981). Seaweeds of Australia. (Reed: Sydney.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1855b). Algae. In Hooker, J.D., The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage. II. Flora Novae-Zelandiae. Part II, pp. 211–266, Plates 107–121.

HARVEY, W.H. (1859b). Algae. In Hooker, J.D., The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage. Flora Tasmaniae. Vol. II, pp. 282–320.

HARVEY, W.H. (1860b). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 3, Plates 121–180. (Reeve: London.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1863). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 5, Plates 241–300, synop., pp. i-lxxiii. (Reeve: London.)

HOOKER, J.D. & HARVEY, W.H. (1847). Algae Tasmanicae. Lond. J. Bot. 6, 397–417.

KÜTZING, F.T. (1843). Phycologia generalis. (Leipzig.)

KÜTZING, F.T. (1849). Species Algarum. (Leipzig.)

KÜTZING, F.T. (1868). Tabulae Phycologicae. Vol. 18. (Nordhausen.)

KYLIN, H. (1932). Die Florideenordnung Gigartinales. Lunds Univ. Årsskr. N.F. Avd. 2, 28 (8), 1–88, Plates 1–28.

MILLAR, A.J.K. & KRAFT, G.T. (1993). Catalogue of Marine and Freshwater Red Algae (Rhodophyta) of New South Wales, including Lord Howe Island, South-western Pacific. Aust. Syst. Bot. 6, 1–90.

POIRET, J.L.M. (1808). Varec. Fucus. In Lamarck, J.B. de, Encyclopedie Methodique. Botanique, Vol.8, 340–409. (Paris.)

SEARLES, R.B. (1968). Morphological studies of red algae of the order Gigartinales. Univ. Calif Pubis Bot. 43, vi + 1–86, Plates 1–12.

SONDER, O.W. (1853). Plantae Muellerianae. Algae. Linnaea 25, 657–709.

SONDER, O.W. (1855). Algae annis 1852 et 1853 collectae. Linnaea 26, 506–528.

TURNER, D. (1811). Fuci sive Plantarum Fucorum Generi a Botanicis Ascriptarum Icones Descriptiones et Historia. Vol. 3, pp. 1–148, Plates 135–196. (London.)

WYNNE, M.J., ARDRÉ, F. & SILVA, P.C. (1993). The identity of Fucus pepricarpos Poiret. Cryptogamie, Algol. 14, 37–42.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIA complete list of references.

Author: H.B.S. Womersley

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (14 January, 1994)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIIA, Bangiophyceae and Florideophyceae (to Gigartinales)
Reproduced with permission from The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIA 1994, by H.B.S. Womersley. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia.

Illustration in Womersley Part IIIA, 1994: FIG. 136.

Figure 136 image

Figure 136   enlarge

Fig. 136. Phacelocarpus peperocarpos (AD, A61763). A. Habit. B. Branch with young axillary female shoots. C. Branch with cystocarps. D. Branch with spermatangial nemathecia. E. Branch with tetrasporangial nemathecia. F. Longitudinal section of spermatangial nemathecium. G. Longitudinal section of tetrasporangial nemathecium.

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