Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet
Phylum Rhodophyta – Class Florideophyceae – Order Nemaliales – Family Galaxauraceae
Halymenia fastigiata Bory 1826: 594.
Chaetangium fastigiatum (Bory) J. Agardh 1852: 460. Cribb 1956:186. Delépine et al. 1979: 595, fig. 1. Delépine & Lambert 1981: 127, figs 1–18. Huisman & Womersley, 1992: 359, figs 1–10. Levring 1945: 13, fig. 5; 1953: 512. Papenfuss 1964: 26. Ricker 1987: 166, fig. 71.
C. lingula Harvey 1859b: 316.
Thallus (gametophyte) (Fig. 31A, B) grey-red to red-purple, mucilaginous, (1–) 2–6 (–8) cm high, erect, 1–4 times furcate from near the base, tapering above in larger plants, apices rounded to contracted, branches terete to compressed, 2–5 mm broad. Holdfast discoid, 1–2 mm across; epilithic. Structure multiaxial, with a loosely filamentous medulla (Fig. 31C) with cells 1–2 µm in diameter and L/D 4–10, becoming hollow, surrounded by a cortex of anticlinal filaments 2–4 cells long where unbranched, 2–3 µm in diameter, cells L/D 1.5–2.5.
Tetrasporophyte crustose, discoid, with a basal layer bearing erect filaments 10–20 cells long (Delépine et al. 1979).
Reproduction: Sexual thalli dioecious. Carpogonial branches (Fig. 30C, D) 3–4 cells long, with the cells below the carpogonium bearing short lateral branches. Gonimoblast (Fig. 30E, F) arising from the fertilized carpogonium, developing branching filaments which extend around the lower part of the pericarp and produce terminal carposporangia, with the carposporophyte surrounded by a dense filamentous involucre derived from the basal cell of the carpogonial branch; cystocarps (Fig. 31D) sunken, 250–400 µm across, ostiolate. Spermatangia not recorded.
Tetrasporophyte (Delépine et al. 1979) with cruciately divided tetrasporangia borne laterally on the erect filaments of the discoid crust.
Type from Isles Malouines (Falkland Is); in PC, fragments in Herb. Agardh, LD, 32591.
Selected specimens: Lady Bay, Southport, Tas., mid eulittoral (Parsons & Womersley, 28.x.1982; AD, A56539). Ninepin Point, D'Entrecasteaux Ch., Tas., mid eulittoral (Parsons & Womersley, 1.xi.1982; AD, A56468 -"Marine Algae of southern Australia" No. 317). Tesselated Pavement, Eaglehawk Neck, Tas., lower eulittoral (Wollaston, 20.ii.1986; AD, A57076 -"Marine Algae of southern Australia" No. 317a). Ulladulla, N.S.W., on rocks emergent at low tide (May, 14.xi.1978; NSW; AD, A58690).
Distribution: Sub-antarctic islands, southern S. America.
In southern Australia, from Lady Bay, Southport, to Eaglehawk Neck, Tas., and Ulladulla, N.S.W. (Millar & Kraft 1993, p. 9).
Taxonomic notes: This subantarctic species occurs in Australia mainly in south-east Tasmania, with a record from Ulladulla in southern N.S.W. The record of DeToni & Forti (1923, p. 15, as C. variolosum) from Geraldton, W. Aust., is clearly in error, being well outside the range of this species.
Levring (1953, p. 512) considered C. lingula Harvey not distinct from C. fastigiatum, and the type of the former from Browns R. (near Kingston), Tas., as well as the above specimens, agree well with Falkland Is plants as illustrated by Delépine & Lambert (1981, fig. 1).
The origin of the gonimoblast and the sterile involucral filaments of the involucre has been clarified by Huisman & Womersley (1992) who showed that the gonimoblast originates from the fertilized carpogonium and the involucre from the filaments on the basal cell, as in other taxa of the Galaxauraceae.
AGARDH, J.G. (1852). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 2, Part 2, pp. 337–720. (Gleerup: Lund.)
BORY DE ST-VINCENT, J.B. (1826). Cryptogamia, pp. 593–597. In Dumont-D'Urville, J. (Ed.), Flore des Malouines. Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris 4, 573–621.
CRIBB, A.B. (1956). Notes on marine algae from Tasmania. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tas. 90, 183–188, Plates 1–3.
DELÉPINE, R. & LAMBERT, C. (1981). L'appareil femelle de la Rhodophycée Chaetangium fastigiatum et l'existence dun gonophore chez cette espèce. C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 292, Ser. III, 127–130.
DELÉPINE, R., DELESALLE, B. & LAMBERT, C. (1979). Sur l'existence dun tétrasporophyte dans le cycle de la Rhodophycée Chaetangium fastigiatum (Bory)J. Ag. aux îles Kerguelen. C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 289, Sér. D, 595–598.
HARVEY, W.H. (1859b). Algae. In Hooker, J.D., The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage. Flora Tasmaniae. Vol. II, pp. 282–320.
HUISMAN, J.M. & WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1992). Cystocarp development in the red alga Nothogenia fastigiata (Galaxauraceae, Nemaliales). Phycologia 31, 359–364.
LEVRING, T. (1945). Marine algae from some antarctic and subantarctic Islands. Lunds Univ. Årsskr. N.F. Avd. 2, 41 (7), 1–36, Plate 1.
LEVRING, T. (1953). The marine algae of Australia. I. Rhodophyta: Goniotrichales, Bangiales and Némalionales. Arkiv för Bot. Ser. 2, 2, 457–530.
MILLAR, A.J.K. & KRAFT, G.T. (1993). Catalogue of Marine and Freshwater Red Algae (Rhodophyta) of New South Wales, including Lord Howe Island, South-western Pacific. Aust. Syst. Bot. 6, 1–90.
PAPENFUSS, G.F. (1964). Catalogue and bibliography of antarctic and subantarctic benthic marine algae. Am. geophys. Un. Antarctic Res. Ser., Vol. 1, pp. 1–76.
PARKINSON, P.G. (1983). The typification and status of the name Chaetangium (algae). Taxon 32, 605–610.
RICKER, R.W. (1987). Taxonomy and biogeography of Macquarie Island Seaweeds. [British Museum (N.H.): London.]
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIA complete list of references.
Womersley, H.B.S. (14 January, 1994)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIIA, Bangiophyceae and Florideophyceae (to Gigartinales)
Reproduced with permission from The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIA 1994, by H.B.S. Womersley. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia.
Illustrations in Womersley Part IIIA, 1994: FIGS 30 C–F, 31.
Figure 30 enlarge
Fig. 30. A, B. Gloiophloea rosea (LD, 31989, holotype). A. Outline of habit of the type specimen. B. Medullary and cortical filaments and cystocarp (from the dried type). C–F. Nothogenia fastigiata. (AD, A56468). C. Carpogonial branch with sterile filaments from hypogynous and basal cells. D. An older stage of C. E. Young gonimoblast developing from fertilized carpogonium, hypogynous cell with sterile filaments. F. Older gonimoblast. G–J. Galaxaura obtusata. G. Section of cortex of gametophyte [Cairns, Qld., 1 m deep (Harada, 1.xii.1976; AD, A52450; Murdoch, R2217)]. H. Section of cortex of sporophyte (Murdoch, J.H. 179W). I. Carpogonial branch with sterile filaments on hypogynous and basal cells (as for G above). J. Terminal tetrasporangia on outer cortical cells [Red Bluff, Kalbarri, W.Aust., 7-10 m deep (Kraft & Ricker, 15.xii.1980; MELU, A35329)1. [C–F after Huisman & Womersley 1992; G–J after Huisman & Borowitzka 1990.]
Figure 31 enlarge
Fig. 31. Nothogenia fastigiata.(A, C, D, AD, 56468; B, AD, A57076). A. Liquid preserved specimen. B. Habit of large plants. C. Cross section of thallus (by J.M. Huisman). D. Section of mature cystocarp. [A, B, D as in Huisman & Womersley 1992.]
State Herbarium of South Australia