Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet
Phylum Rhodophyta – Class Florideophyceae – Order Gigartinales – Family Kallymeniaceae
Selected citations: J. Agardh 1876: 219; 1892: 63. Lucas & Perrin 1947: 161, figs 33,35. Womersley & Norris 1971:7, figs 1–5,77.
Thallus (Fig. 72A) rose-red, foliose, subsessile or shortly stipitate, usually undivided, with a smooth margin, 10–30 cm across and high, with numerous perforations scattered fairly evenly over most of the thallus except at the base; larger and smaller perforations intermixed, larger 3–5 mm in diameter, smaller usually 1–2 mm in diameter; substance gelatinous but fairly firm when fresh, disintegrating rapidly in the drift. Holdfast discoid, 1–3 (–5) mm across; epilithic. Structure. Thallus 200–500 (–1000) µm thick, consisting of 3–4 layers of cortical cells (Fig. 73E) and a central medulla of fairly densely to loosely arranged filaments, produced from lightly staining stellate cells, (4–) 6–10 µm in diameter; outer cortical cells (3–) 4–6 (–7) µm across in surface view, rounded or isodiametric to elongate; stellate cells (Fig. 73A) subspherical, (40–) 90–160 µm in diameter, with numerous irregular (both in length and thickness) radiating arms.
Reproduction: Sexual thalli dioecious. Carpogonial branch systems (Fig. 73B) monocarpogonial, with 3–5 subsidiary cells; these together with the supporting cell and often the first cell of the carpogonial branch are elongate and much lobed. Fusion cell much lobed, 100–180 µm across, compact, producing numerous connecting filaments. Auxiliary cell systems (Fig. 73C) 30–40 µm across, consisting of an auxiliary cell and 3–4 (–5) spherical subsidiary cells; following fusion with a connecting filament, the auxiliary cell produces numerous gonimoblast filaments ultimately cutting off carposporangia. Cystocarps 400–600 µm across in surface view, within the medulla, consisting of a dense mass of intermixed filaments and subspherical to ovoid carposporangia, each (10–) 14–20 µm in greatest dimension. Male thalli with spermatangia (Fig. 73D) 1–2 µm in diameter, covering the surface, cut off from the outer cortical cells.
Tetrasporangia scattered in the outer cortex (Fig. 73E), cruciately divided, ovoid, 20–28 µm long by 17–19 µm in diameter.
Type from Fremantle, W.Aust.; lectotype in Herb. Harvey, TCD.
Selected specimens: Abrolhos Is, W. Aust., drift (Lucas, Nov. 1915; UWA, Al212). Cottesloe, W. Aust., drift (Kraft, July 1966; AD, A34853). Twin Rocks, Head of Great Australian Bight, S. Aust., 20–22 m deep (Branden, 19.i.1991; AD, A61121). Waldegrave I., S. Aust., 22 m deep (Shepherd, 17.iv.1970; AD, A35825, A35826, A35829). Elliston, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 13.i.1951; AD, A13499). Off Troubridge I., S. Aust., 23 m deep (Shepherd, 4.ii.1969; AD, A33529). Muston, American R. inlet, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., 2–3 m deep (Kraft, 7.iv.1972; AD, A42405). Cape Northumberland, S. Aust., 15 m deep (Shepherd, 1.ii.1978; AD, A55131). Flinders, Vic. (Lucas, Feb, 1932; NSW). Musselroe Bay, Tas. (Perrin, 15.iii.1950; AD, A16427).
Distribution: Abrolhos Is, W. Aust., to Flinders, Vic., and around Tasmania, in depths of 3–40 m on moderate to rough-water coasts.
Taxonomic notes: K cribrosa is the earliest described perforate species of Kallymenia, followed by K. perforata J. Agardh from the tropics, K. pertusa Setchell & Gardner from the Gulf of California, K. papenfussii Norris from South Africa, and K. cribrogloea Womersley & Norris from southern Australia (see Womersley & Norris 1971, pp. 5, 7). K. cribrosa is characterised by monocarpogonial systems, whereas K. pertusa and K. papenfussii are polycarpogonial; K. perforata is inadequately known.
AGARDH, J.G. (1876). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 3, Part 1 - Epicrisis systematis Floridearum, pp. i-vii, 1–724. (Weigel: Leipzig.)
AGARDH, J.G. (1892). Analecta Algologica. Acta Univ. lund. 28, 1–182, Plates 1–3.
HARVEY, W.H. (1855a). Some account of the marine botany of the colony of Western Australia. Trans. R. Ir. Acad. 22, 525–566.
HARVEY, W.H. (1859a). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 2, Plates 61–120. (Reeve: London.)
HARVEY, W.H. (1860a). Algae. In Hooker, J.D., The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage. 111. Flora Tasmaniae. Vol. II, pp. 321–343, Plates 185–196.
HARVEY, W.H. (1863). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 5, Plates 241–300, synop., pp. i-lxxiii. (Reeve: London.)
LUCAS, A.H.S. & PERRIN, F. (1947). The Seaweeds of South Australia. Part 2. The Red Seaweeds. (Govt Printer: Adelaide.)
WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. & NORRIS, R.E. (1971). The morphology and taxonomy of Australian Kallymeniaceae (Rhodophyta). Aust. J. Bot. Suppl. 2, pp. 1–62.
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIA complete list of references.
Womersley, H.B.S. (14 January, 1994)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIIA, Bangiophyceae and Florideophyceae (to Gigartinales)
Reproduced with permission from The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIA 1994, by H.B.S. Womersley. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia.
Illustrations in Womersley Part IIIA, 1994: FIGS 72A, 73 A–E.
Figure 72 enlarge
Fig. 72. A. Kallymenia cribrosa (AD, A61121). Habit. B, C. Kallymenia cribrogloea. (B, AD, A35158; C, AD, A35824). B. Habit. C. Fusion cell with several old trichogynes and numerous young connecting filaments. D, E. Kallymenia tasmanica (AD, A33060). D. Habit. E. Transverse section of cystocarp. [B–E as in Womersley & Norris 1971.]
Figure 73 enlarge
Fig. 73. A–E. Kallymenia cribrosa (A–C, AD, A35829; D, All, A35825; E, AD, A35826). A. Stellate cell with irregular arms. B. Carpogonial branch system with lobed subsidiary cells and a single carpogonial branch. C. Auxiliary cell system. D. Transverse section of cortex of a male plant with spermatangia. E. Transverse section of cortex with tetrasporangia. F–J. Kallymenia cribrogloea. (F, G, I, J, AD, A35158; H, AD, A35824). F. Stellate cell. G. Auxiliary cell system. H. Fusion of a connecting filament with an auxiliary cell. I. Surface view of a spermatangial thallus. J. Transverse section of a tetrasporangial thallus. K–O. Kallymenia tasmanica (K, L, AD, A33060; M, N, AD, A34362; O, AD, A34270). K. Young carpogonial branch. L. Mature carpogonial branch. M. Fusion cell with old trichogyne and young connecting filaments. N. Auxiliary cell system with fused connecting filament and developing gonimoblasts. O. Transverse section of tetrasporangial thallus. [A-0 after Womersley & Norris 1971.]
State Herbarium of South Australia