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Hormophora australasica J. Agardh 1892: 77.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Class Florideophyceae – Order Gigartinales – Family Kallymeniaceae

Selected citations: Kylin 1956: 233. Lucas 1909: 26. Schmitz & Hauptfleisch 1897: 365. Wilson 1892: 183. Womersley & Norris 1971: 20, figs 44–46, 91.

Thallus (Fig. 76C) dark red, 4–12 cm high, with one to several fronds consisting of di- or polychotomously branched chains of irregularly ovate to obovate, flat, elongate segments, branching at intervals of one to several segments, with new segments usually arising from apices of older segments and with a narrow, constricted base; basal parts of thallus sometimes linear, 2–3 mm broad; occasional forked segments present; mature segments 4–10 (–14) mm long and 2–4 (–7) mm broad, flat, and with slightly thicker margins; substance firm, not adhering to paper on drying. Holdfast discoid, 2–4 mm across; epilithic. Structure. Thallus (Fig. 77J) 160–340 µm thick, consisting of 4–5 layers of fairly compact cortical cells and a broad central medulla of fairly densely and irregularly arranged filaments 2–5 (–8) µm thick; outer conical cells compactly arranged in surface view and 3–6 µm across, in sectional view slightly longer than broad; stellate cells (Fig. 77K) usually abundant in medulla, with long slender arms and usually light'y staining contents.

Reproduction: Carpogonial branch systems (Fig. 77L) polycarpogonial with elongate, probably somewhat clavate (but not lobed) supporting cell and hrst cells of the carpogonial branches. Cystocarps (Fig. 76D) irregularly clustered on segments, 0.7–1.5 mm across, extemal to the thallus and becoming slightly basally constricted, consisting of a thick pericarp and numerous groups of carposporangia amongst the gonimoblast tilaments. Other developmental stages unknown. Spermatangia(?) covering the surface of the ends of ultimate segments, cut off from the outer conical cells.

Tetrasporangia unknown.

Type from Port Phillip Heads, Vic. (Wilson 9, 2.ii.l886); holotype in Herb. Agardh, LD, 24861.

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: Known from Wilson collections from Port Phillip 1–1eads, Vic. (the type and MEL, 1005839–1005848, collected in Dec., Jan., or Feb. 1886–1895), and 1 3 km off Cape Northumberland, S. Aust., 15 m deep (Turnbull, 30.ix.l975; AD, A46592 and Shepherd, 1.ii.1978; AD, A49150).

Taxonomic notes: Hormophora australasica is still a little known genus. It is related to Cirrulicarpus but distinguished by the constricted bases of upper branches or segments, producing a moniliform habit in well developed specimens, and by the massive, extemal and basally constricted cystocarps.


AGARDH, J.G. (1892). Analecta Algologica. Acta Univ. lund. 28, 1–182, Plates 1–3.

KYLIN, H. (1956). Die Gattungen der Rhodophyceen. (Gleerups: Lund.)

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1909). Revised list of the Fucoideae and Florideae of Australia. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 34, 9–60.

SCHMITZ, F. & HAUPTFLEISCH, P. (1897). Gelidiaceae, Acrotylaceae, Gigartinaceae, Rhodophyllidaceae, Sphaerococcaceae, Rhodymeniaceae, pp. 340–405, Grateloupiaceae, Dumontiaceae, Nemastomaceae, Rhizophyllidaceae, Squamariaceae, pp. 508–537. In Engler, A. & Prantl, K., Die nattirlichen Pflanzenfamilien. T. 1. Abt. 2. (Engelmann: Leipzig.)

WILSON, J.B. (1892). Catalogue of algae collected at or near Port Phillip Heads and Western Port. Proc. R. Soc. Vict. 4, 157–190.

WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. & NORRIS, R.E. (1971). The morphology and taxonomy of Australian Kallymeniaceae (Rhodophyta). Aust. J. Bot. Suppl. 2, pp. 1–62.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIA complete list of references.

Author: H.B.S. Womersley

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (14 January, 1994)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIIA, Bangiophyceae and Florideophyceae (to Gigartinales)
Reproduced with permission from The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIA 1994, by H.B.S. Womersley. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia.

Illustrations in Womersley Part IIIA, 1994: FIGS 76C, D, 77 J–L.

Figure 76 image

Figure 76   enlarge

Fig. 76. A. Cirrulicarpus nanus (AD, A33913). Habit. B. Cirrulicarpus polycoelioides (AD, A41925). Habit. C, D. Hormophora australasica (C, AD, A46592; D, AD, A49150). C. Habit. D. Cross section of a cystocarp. E. Polycoelia laciniata (AD, A19401). Habit. [E as in Womersley & Norris 1971.]

Figure 77 image

Figure 77   enlarge

Fig. 77. A–F. Cirrulicarpus nanus (A–D, MEL, 1OO5814; E, AD, A41232; F, AD, A42423). A. Transverse section of thallus, with a carpogonial branch system. B. Stellate cell. C. Carpogonial branch system with 3 carpogonial branches. D. Auxiliary cell system. E. Transverse section of cortex with spermatangia. F. Transverse section of cortex with obliquely divided telrasporangia. G–L. Cirrulicarpus polycoelioider (AD, A41925). G. Transverse section of cortex with a carpogonial branch system. H. Stellate cell. I. Auxiliary cell system. J–L. Hormophora auslralasica (J, K, from the type; L, AD, A4915O). J. Transverse section of thallus. K. Stellate cell. L. Carpogonial branch system. M–O. Polycoelia laciniaza (M, N, AD, A212O9; O, AD, A19401). M. Transverse section from large central cells to cortex, with tetrasporangia. N. Carpogonial branch system. O. Auxiliary cell system. [A–D, J, K, M after Womersley & Norris 1971.]

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