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Genus GLAPHYRYMENIA J. Agardh 1885: 52

Phylum Rhodophyta – Class Florideophyceae – Order Gigartinales – Family Kallymeniaceae

Thallus foliose, entire, with a smooth to undulate margin. Structure. Medulla of slender, loosely arranged filaments in a gelatinous matrix, with slender stellate cells, and a thin cortex of small cells derived directly from the medullary filaments.

Thallus (Fig. 74C) pale rose-red to medium red, foliose, 10–60 cm high and usually broader than high, blade rounded when young and often becoming irregularly lobed or sometimes laciniate, with a smooth to markedly undulate margin which may be slightly dentate; substance gelatinous and firm when living, adhering strongly to paper on drying and disintegrating fairly quickly on wetting. Holdfast discoid, 1–2 mm across; epilithic. Structure. Thallus (Fig. 75L) 300–700 (–1000) µm thick, filamentous throughout with a loose network of medullary filaments 3–5 µm in diameter, and a dense cortex of similar branched filaments becoming anticlinal, with short chains of ovoid outer cortical cells, each 2–3 µm across; small, lightly staining stellate cells present in the medulla (Fig. 75M).

Reproduction: Carpogonial branch systems mono- or bicarpogonial, with small, subspherical cells; fusion cell relatively slender. Auxiliary cell systems with 3–4 subspherical subsidiary cells. Carposporophyte with a central mass of filaments producing masses of carposporangia not intermixed with filaments. Spermatangia scattered over the thallus.

Tetrasporangia scattered in the cortical layer.

Sexual thalli dioecious. Carpogonial branch systems (Fig. 75N) formed from inner cortical filaments, mono- or bicarpogonial, with a rounded supporting cell producing 2–4 subspherical subsidiary cells, 1 or 2 of which develop into normally 3-celled carpogonial branches. Fusion cell lobed but relatively simple, producing several connecting filaments. Auxiliary cell systems (Fig. 75 0) 30–45 µm across, the auxiliary cell bearing 3–4 subsidiary cells. Cystocarps (Fig. 74D) scattered over most of the thallus, 220–600 µm across, embedded in the thallus but protruding somewhat when fully developed, consisting of a central mass of slender gonimoblast filaments producing outwardly numerous subspherical carposporangia (Fig. 74D) each 14–20 µm across and mostly not intermixed with gonimoblast filaments; a loose surrounding involucre of filaments present. Male thalli with minute spermatangia (about 1 µm in diameter) cut off from the outer cortical cells.

Tetrasporangia (Fig. 75L) scattered in the cortex, ovoid, 16–22 µm long by 12–15 µm broad, cruciately divided.

Type: Type (and only) species: G. pustulosa J. Agardh, 1885: 52.

Type from Port Phillip, Vic. (Wilson 88, 25.i.1884); lectotype in Herb. Agardh, LD, 27153.

Selected specimens: Waldegrave I., S. Aust., 22 m deep (Shepherd, 17.iv.1970; AD, A35823). Topgallant I., Investigator Gr., S. Aust., 27 m deep (Turner, 29.iii.1982; AD, A53066). Off Cape Northumberland, S. Aust., 15 m deep (Shepherd, 1.ii.1978; AD, A55132). Marion Bay, Tas., 15 m deep (Shepherd, 13.ii.1970; AD, A35169). Taroona, Tas., 3–6 m deep (Shepherd, 4.ii.1970; AD, A35163). Great Taylor Bay, Bruny I., Tas., 6 m deep (Shepherd, 7.ii.1970; AD, A35538).

Distribution: New Zealand (Nelson & Adams 1987, p. 37).

Waldegrave I., S. Aust., to Port Phillip, Vic., and SE Tasmania; known from depths of 3–22 m.

Taxonomic notes: Glaphyrymenia is distinguished from other genera of the Kallymeniaceae by the virtually totally filamentous medulla and cortex and by the carposporophyte in which a central mass of gonimoblast filaments produces a surrounding mass of carposporangia. The small, rounded cells of the carpogonial branch and auxiliary cell systems provide a further distinction from other Australian species of the family.

Glaphyrymenia pustulosa J. Agardh 1885:52, pl. 1 fig. 4. Norris 1957:301, fig. 21, p1. 40;
1961: 262, figs 1–10. Womersley & Norris 1971: 17, figs 37,38,88,89.


AGARDH, J.G. (1885). Till algemes systematik. VII. Florideae. Acta Univ. lund. 21, 1–120, Plate 1.

NELSON, W.A. & ADAMS, N.M. (1987). Marine Algae of the Bay of Islands area. Nat. Mus. N.Z., Misc. Ser. No. 16, pp. 1–47.

NORRIS, R.E. (1957). Morphological studies on the Kallymeniaceae. Univ. Calif. Pubis Bot. 28, 251–333.

WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. & NORRIS, R.E. (1971). The morphology and taxonomy of Australian Kallymeniaceae (Rhodophyta). Aust. J. Bot. Suppl. 2, pp. 1–62.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIA complete list of references.

Author: H.B.S. Womersley

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (14 January, 1994)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIIA, Bangiophyceae and Florideophyceae (to Gigartinales)
Reproduced with permission from The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIA 1994, by H.B.S. Womersley. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia.

Illustrations in Womersley Part IIIA, 1994: FIGS 74C, D, 75L-0.

Figure 74 image

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Fig. 74. A. Kallymenia rubra (AD, A22164). Habit. B. Kallymenia spinosa (AD, A33660). Habit. C, D. Glaphyrymenia pustulosa (AD, A35823). C. Habit. D. Transverse section of thallus with cystocarp. [B, D as in Womersley & Norris 1971.]

Figure 75 image

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Fig. 75. A–F. Kallymenia rubra (AD, A22164). A. Transverse section of thallus with young carpogonial branch system. B. Stellate cell. C. Mature carpogonial branch system. D. Auxiliary cell system. E. Fusion cell producing connecting filaments. F. Fusion of connecting filament with auxiliary cell and formation of gonimoblast cells. G–K. Kallymenia spinosa (AD, A33660). G. Surface of thallus with spines. H. Transverse section of thallus. I. Young carpogonial branch system. J. Mature carpogonial branch system. K. Auxiliary cell system. L-0. Glaphyrymenia pustulosa (AD, A35823). L. Transverse section of thallus with tetrasporangia. M. Stellate cell. N. Carpogonial branch system. 0. Auxiliary cell system. [A–M after Womersley & Norris 1971.]

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