Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet

Gelinaria ulvoidea Sonder 1845: 55; 1848: 172.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Class Florideophyceae – Order Gigartinales – Family Halymeniaceae

Selected citations: J. Agardh 1851: 197; 1876: 582; 1890a: 11. Harvey 1855a: 556; 1859a: pl. 85. De Toni 1897: 311.


Halymenia ulvoidea (Sonder) Kützing 1849: 718. Parkinson 1980a: 13. Nemastoma? gelinarioides Harvey 1855a: 557. J. Agardh 1876: 131.

Halymenia speciosa Zanardini 1874: 504. De Toni 1905: 1549.

Gelinaria harveyana J. Agardh 1890a: 14; 1897: 36. De Toni 1897: 311.

Thallus (Fig. 62A) medium to dark red, fading to yellow-red or grey-red, mucilaginous and adhering to paper on drying, (10–) 20–50 (–75) cm high, complanately branched and usually bipinnate, often becoming tripinnate; axes 2–4 (–6) cm broad, main laterals basally constricted, usually 1–2 cm broad and 1–2 mm thick, lesser laterals usually 2–4 cm long and 3–6 mm broad with ultimate ramuli (1–) 2–6 (–10) mm long, 1–2 mm broad, tapering to a point. Holdfast discoid, 2–5 mm across, with a thick cuneate stipe; epilithic. Structure (Fig. 62C) of a cortex 80–200 µm thick with an outer cortex of anticlinal filaments soon becoming 80–120 µm and 4–8 cells long, branching at most cells, cells 2–4 µm in diameter, elongate, and an inner cortex of ovoid to angular cells 15–25 µm across, becoming only slightly stellate; medulla of moderate to dense irregular filaments 4–8 (–10) µm in diameter, usually with prominent refractive ganglionic cells (Fig. 62B) with large central bosses and long slender arms linking with arms of other such cells when young.

Reproduction: Sexual thalli probably dioecious. Carpogonial branch ampullae (Fig. 63A) arising in inner cortex, with 4–8 secondary and tertiary filaments converging somewhat above, and a 2-celled carpogonial branch. Auxiliary cell ampullae (Fig. 63B) arising in inner cortex, with numerous secondary and tertiary filaments forming a broad ampulla slightly converging above and reaching to the outer cortex, with a prominent auxiliary cell. Carposporophytes (Fig. 62C) 180–220 µm across, lying within the medulla, with a dense mass of ovoid to angular carposporangia each 8–12 µm across; involucre moderate to dense, derived largely from ampullary filaments which branch further around the distinct ostiole. Spermatangia not observed.

Tetrasporangia (Fig. 63C) arising from mid cells of the outer cortex, elongate-ovoid, 30–40 µm long and 10–15 µm in diameter, cruciately divided.usually with prominent refractive ganglionic cells (Fig. 62B) with large central bosses and long slender arms linking with arms of other such cells when young.

Type from W. Aust. (Preiss); HGB holds a Preiss specimen, and in MEL, 668412, are two pieces on mica, one 5 cm long, plus Sonder's notes and drawing of the larger specimen in HBG.

Selected specimens: Yanchep, W. Aust., drift (Womersley, 22.ix.1979; AD, A51271). Point Clune, Rottnest I., W. Aust., 12–15 m deep (Kraft & Millar, 7.xii.1984; MELU, A40403). Esperance, W. Aust., drift (Firman, Dec. 1951; AD, A18900). Ward I., S. Aust., 30 m deep (Graske, 22.vi.1988; AD, A59255). Between Hopkins and Thistle Is, S. Aust., 6–9 m deep (Baldock, 1.i.1964; AD, A27140). Cable Hut Bay, Yorke Pen., S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 15.x.1988; AD, A59162 -"Marine Algae of southern Australia" No. 318). Redcliff Point, Upper Spencer Gulf, S. Aust., 14 m deep (Shepherd, 10.iv.1980; AD, A51050). Marino, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 11.viii.1966; AD, A30652). Vivonne Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 2.i.1949; AD, A10661). Cape Jaffa, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 31.viii.1949; AD, A10855). Dutton Bay, Portland, Vic., drift (Womersley, 13.iv.1959; AD, A22674). Portsea, Vic., 15–18 m deep (Frost, 12.x.1985; MELU, A40404). Cape Woolamai, Vic., 13 m deep (Riddle & McKenna, 17.ii.1990; AD, A60180, A60181). Walkerville, Vic., drift (Sinkora A2039, 20.ii.1975; AD, A48339). West Point, Erith I., Bass Strait, 28 m deep (Shepherd & Lewis, 10.v.1974; AD, A45239).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: Yanchep, W. Aust., to Walkerville, Vic., and the north coast of Tasmania.

Taxonomic notes: G. ulvoidea is a distinctive species with some habit similarity to Halymenia floresia var. harveyana, but it is thicker and tougher, with a thicker cortex and denser medulla.

Nemastoma? gelinarioides Harvey was based on his Travelling Set No.84 from King George Sound, W. Aust. (holotype in TCD) and agrees well with G. ulvoidea. On the basis of Alg. Aust. Exsicc. 433 (in Herb. Agardh, LD, 22166) of N. gelinarioides, also from King George Sound, J. Agardh transferred the species to Gelinaria and renamed it G. harveyana. Halymenia speciosa Zanardini, from Georgetown, Tas. (Goodwin), holotype in Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Venice, also agrees with G. ulvoidea.


AGARDH, J.G. (1851). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 2, Part 1, 1–336 + index. (Gleerup: Lund.)

AGARDH, J.G. (1876). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 3, Part 1 - Epicrisis systematis Floridearum, pp. i-vii, 1–724. (Weigel: Leipzig.)

AGARDH, J.G. (1890a). Till algemes systematik. Acta Univ. lund. 26(3), 1–125, Plates 1–3.

AGARDH, J.G. (1897). Analecta Algologica. Cont. IV. Acta Univ. lund. 33, 1–106, Plates 1, 2.

DE TONI, G.B. (1897). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 4. Florideae. Sect. 1, pp. 1–388. (Padua.)

DE TONI, G.B. (1905). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 4. Florideae. Sect. 4, pp. 1523–1973. (Padua.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1855a). Some account of the marine botany of the colony of Western Australia. Trans. R. Ir. Acad. 22, 525–566.

HARVEY, W.H. (1859a). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 2, Plates 61–120. (Reeve: London.)

KÜTZING, F.T. (1849). Species Algarum. (Leipzig.)

PARKINSON, P.G. (1980a). Halymenia. (Pettifogging Press: Auckland.)

SONDER, O.G. (1845). Nova Algarum genera et species, quas in itinere ad oras occidentales Novae Hollandiae, collegit L. Preiss, Ph.Dr. Bot. Zeit. 3, 49–57.

SONDER, O.W. (1848). Algae. In Lehmann, C., Plantae Preissianae. Vol. 2, pp. 161–195. (Hamburg.)

ZANARDINI, J. (1874). Phyceae Australicae novae vel minus cognitae. Flora (Regensburg) 57, 486–490, 497–505.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIA complete list of references.

Author: H.B.S. Womersley & J.A. Lewis

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (14 January, 1994)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIIA, Bangiophyceae and Florideophyceae (to Gigartinales)
Reproduced with permission from The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIA 1994, by H.B.S. Womersley. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia.

Illustrations in Womersley Part IIIA, 1994: FIGS 62 A–C, 63 A–C.

Figure 62 image

Figure 62   enlarge

Fig. 62. A–C. Gelinaria ulvoidea (A, AD, A22674; B, C, AD, A60180). A. Habit. B. Ganglionic cells in surface (squash) view. C. Transverse section of thallus with carposporophyte (2 lobed) and surrounding involucre.

Figure 63 image

Figure 63   enlarge

Fig. 63. A–C. Gelinaria ulvoidea (A, B, AD, A60180; C, AD, A22674). A. Carpogonial branch ampulla within the cortex. B. Auxiliary cell ampulla. C. Transverse section of cortex with tetrasporangia. D–F. Pachymenia orbicularis (D, E, AD, A61237; F, AD, A11130). D. Carpogonial branch ampulla within the cortex. E. Auxiliary cell ampulla within the cortex. F. Transverse section of cortex with tetrasporangia.

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