Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet

Craspedocarpus venosus (Kützing) Min-Thein & Womersley 1976: 113, figs 41, 42, 64.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Class Florideophyceae – Order Gigartinales – Family Cystocloniaceae


Stictophyllum venosum Kützing 1866: 4, pl. 9 fig. 3.

Rhodophyllis brookeana J. Agardh 1885: 54; 1894: 59. De Toni 1897: 346. Kylin 1932: 42, pl. 15 fig. 38. LuCas 1929b: 49. May 1965: 409.

Rhodophyllis marginalis J. Agardh 1894: 60. De Toni 1897: 439. Kylin 1932: 42, p1. 16 fig. 40. May 1965: 409. Shepherd & Womersley 1970: 134.

Rhodophyllis bifida sense Harvey 1863, synop.: xl.

Thallus (Fig. 145C, D) erect, light to dark red, 5–15 cm high, complanately and generally subdichotomously to subtrichotomously branched, membranous, with flat branches 2–5 mm broad and 200–500 µm thick, usually slightly narrower basally than terminally, margins smooth, occasionally with small proliferations. Holdfast discoid; epilithic. Structure uniaxial, with the axial and periaxial filaments forming an alternately pinnate vein system (Fig. 145E) (visible on staining), with rhizoidal filaments around the axial filaments forming the medulla, and a cortex 2–3 cells thick, inner cells ovoid and 50–100 µm in diameter, outer cells with well-developed rosettes (Fig. 145E, F) of small cells 6–12 µm across which divide to completely cover the inner cells in older branches. Rhodoplasts discoid, few to numerous per cell.

Reproduction: Sexual thalli dioecious; procarpic. Carpogonial branches (Fig. 146F) 3-celled, borne on inner cortical cells on the branch margins. Development as in C. blepharicarpus, resulting in a carposporophyte (Fig. 146G) with several central cells, radiating gonimoblast filaments bearing chains of ovoid carposporangia 10–20 µm in diameter with some sterile filaments fusing with pericarp cells and also with cells of the inner nutritive tissue. Cystocarps (Figs 145G, 146G) marginal, protruding, 450–750 µm across, non-ostiolate. Spermatangia (Fig. 146H) formed from rosette cells, with 3–4 initials each cutting off 2–3 ovoid spermatangia 2–3 µm in diameter.

Tetrasporangia (Fig. 146I) scattered in the outer cortex of young branches, ovoid 10–22 µm in diameter, zonately divided.

Type from "Nov. Holl."; holotype in L, 941, 253 ... 247.

Selected specimens: Fremantle, W. Aust. (Harvey, Alg. Aust. Exsicc. 366A; TCD and AD, A18275). Tiparra Reef, Spencer Gulf, S. Aust., 11 m deep (Shepherd, 24.ix.1971; AD, A39715). Toad Head, West I., S. Aust., 13 in deep (Shepherd, 15.i.1966; AD, A30164) and 19 m deep (Shepherd, 24.x.1966; AD, A31574). Amphitheatre Rock, West I., S. Aust., 13 in deep (Shepherd, 1.i.1969; AD, A33248). Port Elliot, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 23.v.1953; AD, A18761). Nora Creina, S. Aust., 3–8 m deep (Owen, 3.ix.1971; AD, A39594). 1.3 km off Cape Northumberland, S. Aust., 15 m deep (Turnbull, 30.ix.1975; AD, A46593). Dutton Bay, Portland, Vic., drift (Womersley, 13.iv.1959; AD, A22698). Queenscliff, Vic., drift (Womersley, 8.iv.1959; AD, A22876). Crawfish Rock, Westernport

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: Fremantle, W. Aust., to Westernport Bay, Vic., and Flinders I., Bass Strait.

Taxonomic notes: Bay, Vic., 4 m deep (Watson & Womersley, 16.i.1974; AD, A44876) and 8 m deep (Watson, 29.v.1974; AD, A45327). Flinders I., Bass Strait (Perrin 567, June 1949; BM).

The type and synonymy were discussed by Min-Thein & Womersley (1976, p. 115). Craspedocarpus venosus is characterised by habit and the marginal position of cystocarps.


AGARDH, J.G. (1885). Till algemes systematik. VII. Florideae. Acta Univ. lund. 21, 1–120, Plate 1.

AGARDH, J.G. (1894). Analecta Algologica. Cont. II. Acta Univ. lund. 30, 1–98, Plate 1.

DE TONI, G.B. (1897). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 4. Florideae. Sect. 1, pp. 1–388. (Padua.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1863). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 5, Plates 241–300, synop., pp. i-lxxiii. (Reeve: London.)

KÜTZING, F.T. (1866). Tabulae Phycologicae. Vol. 16. (Nordhausen.)

KYLIN, H. (1932). Die Florideenordnung Gigartinales. Lunds Univ. Årsskr. N.F. Avd. 2, 28 (8), 1–88, Plates 1–28.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1929b). A census of the marine algae of South Australia. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 53, 45–53.

MAY, V. (1965). A census and key to the species of Rhodophyceae (red algae) recorded from Australia. Contr. N.S.W. natn. Herb. 3, 349–429.

MIN-THEIN, U. & WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1976). Studies on southern Australian taxa of Solieriaceae, Rhabdoniaceae and Rhodophyllidaceae (Rhodophyta). Aust. J. Bot. 24, 1–166.

SHEPHERD, S.A. & WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1970). The sublittoral ecology of West Island, South Australia: 1. Environmental features and algal ecology. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 94, 105–137, Plate 1.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIA complete list of references.

Author: H.B.S. Womersley

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (14 January, 1994)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIIA, Bangiophyceae and Florideophyceae (to Gigartinales)
Reproduced with permission from The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIA 1994, by H.B.S. Womersley. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia.

Illustrations in Womersley Part IIIA, 1994: FIGS 145 C–G, 146 F–I.

Figure 145 image

Figure 145   enlarge

Fig. 145. A, B. Craspedocarpus blepharicarpus (A, AD, A18175; B, AD, A22699). A. Habit. B. Surface view of rosettes. C–G. Craspedocarpus venosus (C, AD, A18275; D, AD, A18761; E, AD, A45327; F, AD, A39715; G, AD, A46593). C, D. Habit. E. Surface view of vein system. F. Surface view of rosettes. G. Cross section of cystocarp with chains of carposporangia. [C as in MM-Thein & Womersley 1976.]

Figure 146 image

Figure 146   enlarge

Fig. 146. A–E. Craspedocarpus blepharicarpus (A, C, AD, A19204; B, A18174; D, E, AD, A22699). A. Surface view of branch apex with veins. B. Transverse section of branch. C. Longitudinal section of a marginal proliferation with carpogonial branches. D. Section of cystocarp with chains of carposporangia and basal nutritive tissue. E. Section of a marginal proliferation with tetrasporangia. F–I. Craspedocarpus venosus (F, AD, A18761; G, AD, A31574; II, AD, A30164; I, AD, A22698). F. Longitudinal section of cortex with carpogonial branches. G. Longitudinal section of a cystocarp with central unfused cells, chains of carposporangia, and basal nutritive tissue. H. Section of thallus with spermatangia. I. Section of cortex with tetrasporangia. [A–I after Min-Thein & Womersley 1976.]

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