Electronic Flora of South Australia
Electronic Flora of South Australia
Census of SA Plants, Algae & Fungi
Identification tools

Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet

Craspedocarpus tenuifolius (Harvey) Min-Thein & Womersley 1976: 121, figs 45, 66B, 67B.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Class Florideophyceae – Order Gigartinales – Family Cystocloniaceae


Callophyllis tenuifolia Harvey 1863, synop.: xliii. Lucas 1909: 27.

Rhodophyllis tenuifolia (Harvey) J. Agardh 1876: 367. De Toni 1897: 347. Kylin 1932: 43, pl. 17 fig. 42. Lucas 1929b: 49. Lucas & Perrin 1947: 167. May 1965: 409. Reinbold 1897: 50; 1899: 45. Womersley 1950: 172.

Gloiophyllis engelhardtii Reinbold 1897: 50; 1898: 42. De Toni 1897: 338. Lucas 1909: 27; 1929b: 49. Lucas & Perrin 1947: 164. May 1965: 407.

Callophyllis marginifera J. Agardh 1896: 74; 1901: 20. De Toni 1897: 279. Lucas 1909: 26; 1929b: 48. Lucas & Perrin 1947: 159. Reinbold 1898: 40?. Womersley & Norris 1971: 43.

Thallus (Fig. 147E) erect, medium red, 10–20 cm high, delicate and adhering strongly to paper, complanately and irregularly branched with marginal branchlets; main branches 0.5–1 cm broad, tapering gradually to much divided, slender, often dendroid systems with ultimate branchlets 0.2–0.5 mm broad, apices acute. Holdfast discoid; usually epiphytic on Amphibolis antarctica. Structure uniaxial, with an alternately pinnate vein system (Fig. 147F) with a slender medulla of rhizoidal filaments around the axial and periaxial filaments and a cortex 2–3 cells thick, with inner ovoid cells 50–80 µm in diameter and well developed rosettes (Figs 147F, 148E) of small ovoid outer cells 6–14 µm in diameter, each distinctly separated from other rosette cells, largely covering the inner cells on older branches. Rhodoplasts dense, discoid to elongate and becoming ribbon shaped.

Reproduction: Sexual thalli probably dioecious; procarpic. Carpogonial branches (Fig. 148F) 3-celled, borne on inner cortical cells on the thallus margin, occasionally with a sterile cell on the hypogynous cell; post-fertilization events as in C. blepharicarpus, with the carposporophyte having several large central cells, radiating gonimoblast filaments terminating in chains of ovoid carposporangia 15–25 µm in diameter, and a basal small-celled nutritive tissue. Cystocarps (Fig. 148G) marginal, protruding, 500–750 µm in diameter, non-ostiolate, with a pericarp. Spermatangia unknown.

Tetrasporangia (Fig. 148H) scattered in the cortex, ovoid, 16–25 µm in diameter, zonately divided.

Type from King George Sound, W. Aust. (Harvey, Alg. Aust. Exsicc. 40C); lectotype in Herb. Harvey, TCD.

Selected specimens: Elliston, S. Aust., 7 m deep in bay (Shepherd, 20.x.1970; AD, A37628). Tiparra Reef, Spencer Gulf, S. Aust., 11 m deep (Shepherd, 5.xi.1971; AD, A38331). Brighton, S. Aust., drift (Bienert, 12.xi.1965; AD, A29674). Victor Harbor, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 17.x.1948; AD, A9226). Pennington Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 4.i.1948; AD, A6602). 3 km SW of Kingston, S. Aust., 6–7 m deep (R. Lewis, 28.xi.1972; AD, A42892). Walkerville, Vic., drift (Sinkora A1552, 23.ii,1972; AD, A42318). Musselroe Bay, Tas. (Perrin, Jan. 1947; AD, A8486).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: King George Sound, W. Aust., to Walkerville, Vic., and NE Tasmania.

Taxonomic notes: C. tenuifolius is closely related to C. ramentaceus, differing from the latter in its delicate, somewhat gelatinous texture, the presence of dendroid tufts of fine terminal branchlets, and in the rounded and usually separated rosette cells.


AGARDH, J.G. (1876). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 3, Part 1 - Epicrisis systematis Floridearum, pp. i-vii, 1–724. (Weigel: Leipzig.)

AGARDH, J.G. (1896). Analecta Algologica. Cont. III. Acta Univ. lund. 32, 1–140, Plate 1.

AGARDH, J.G. (1901). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 3, Part 4, pp. 1–149. (Gleerup: Lund.)

DE TONI, G.B. (1897). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 4. Florideae. Sect. 1, pp. 1–388. (Padua.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1863). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 5, Plates 241–300, synop., pp. i-lxxiii. (Reeve: London.)

KYLIN, H. (1932). Die Florideenordnung Gigartinales. Lunds Univ. Årsskr. N.F. Avd. 2, 28 (8), 1–88, Plates 1–28.

LUCAS, A.H.S. & PERRIN, F. (1947). The Seaweeds of South Australia. Part 2. The Red Seaweeds. (Govt Printer: Adelaide.)

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1909). Revised list of the Fucoideae and Florideae of Australia. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 34, 9–60.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1929b). A census of the marine algae of South Australia. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 53, 45–53.

MAY, V. (1965). A census and key to the species of Rhodophyceae (red algae) recorded from Australia. Contr. N.S.W. natn. Herb. 3, 349–429.

MIN-THEIN, U. & WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1976). Studies on southern Australian taxa of Solieriaceae, Rhabdoniaceae and Rhodophyllidaceae (Rhodophyta). Aust. J. Bot. 24, 1–166.

REINBOLD, T. (1897). Die Algen der Lacepede und Guichen Bay und deren naherer Umgebung (Siid Australien), gesammelt von Dr. A. Engelhart-Kingston. Nuova Notarisia 8, 41–62.

REINBOLD, T. (1898). Die Algen der Lacepede und Guichen Bay (Siid Australien) und deren naherer Umgebung, gesammelt von Dr. A. Engelhart-Kingston. II. Nuova Notarisia 9, 33–54.

REINBOLD, T. (1899). Meeresalgen von Investigator Street (Süd Australien), gesammelt von Miss Nellie Davey (Waltham, Honiton). Hedwigia 38, 39–51.

WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. & NORRIS, R.E. (1971). The morphology and taxonomy of Australian Kallymeniaceae (Rhodophyta). Aust. J. Bot. Suppl. 2, pp. 1–62.

WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1950). The marine algae of Kangaroo Island. III. List of Species 1. Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 73, 137–197.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIA complete list of references.

Author: H.B.S. Womersley

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (14 January, 1994)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIIA, Bangiophyceae and Florideophyceae (to Gigartinales)
Reproduced with permission from The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIA 1994, by H.B.S. Womersley. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia.

Illustrations in Womersley Part IIIA, 1994: FIGS 147E, F, 148 E–H.

Figure 147 image

Figure 147   enlarge

Fig. 147. A–D. Craspedocarpus ramentaceus (A, AD, A57704; B, AD, A59336; C, AD, A37770; D, AD, A30852). A. Habit. B. Surface view of rosettes. C. Cross section of cystocarp with chains of carposporangia. D. Surface view of spermatangial sorus. E, F. Craspedocarpus tenuifolius (E, AD, A9226; F, AD, A38331). E. Habit. F. Surface view of rosettes and vein system.

Figure 148 image

Figure 148   enlarge

Fig. 148. A–D. Craspedocarpus ramentaceus (AD, A37770). A. Surface view showing vein system. B. Longitudinal section of a marginal proliferation with a carpogonial branch. C. Longitudinal section of a young cystocarp with several central cells, inner nutritive tissue and outer gonimoblast branches. D. Longitudinal section of a marginal proliferation with tetrasporangia. E–H. Craspedocarpus tenuifolius (E–G, AD, A38331; H, AD, A29674). E. Surface view of rosettes. F. Longitudinal section of branch with carpogonial branches and hairs. G. Section of cystocarp with several central cells, inner nutritive tissue and outer chains of carposporangia. H. Transverse section of branch with tetrasporangia. [A–G after Min-Thein & Womersley 1976.]

Disclaimer Copyright Disclaimer Copyright Email Contact:
State Herbarium of South Australia
Government of South Australia Government of South Australia Government of South Australia Department for Environment and Water