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Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet

Codiophyllum flabelliforme (Sonder) Schmitz 1895: 146.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Class Florideophyceae – Order Gigartinales – Family Halymeniaceae

Selected citations: De Toni 1905: 1603. Scott, Wetherbee & Kraft 1984: 291, figs 10–17.


Thamnoclonium flabelliforme Sonder 1845: 56; 1848: 185. J. Agardh 1876: 171. Harvey 1859a: pl. 113.

Thamnoclonium bunburyense J. Agardh 1876: 170; 1879: 108, pl. 9 figs 1–7; 1885: 24.

Codiophyllum bunburyense (J. Agardh) Schmitz 1889: 455; 1895: 146. Kylin 1956: 223.

Thamnoclonium spongioides J. Agardh 1876: 170; 1879: pl. 9 figs 13–15; 1885: 24.

Codiophyllum spongioides (J. Agardh) De Toni 1905: 1603.

Thamnoclonium marchesettioides J. Agardh 1885: 21.

Codiophyllum marchesettioides (J. Agardh) De Toni 1905: 1601.

Thamnoclonium squamarioides J. Agardh 1885: 22.

Codiophyllum squamarioides (J. Agardh)De Toni 1905: 1601.

Thamnoclonium harveyanum Sonder 1881: 14 (nomen nudum).

Thallus (Fig. 67A) medium to dark red-brown, 10–30 cm high, with one to several subterete to flat or flanged woody stalks 5–17 cm long and 0.5–2.5 cm broad, irregularly branched above with flabellate lamellar meshworks 5–12 cm long, 4–8 (–11) cm broad and 1–2.5 mm thick, composed of 4–10 (–12) separated, irregular layers of subparallel filiform branchlets, producing an uneven or wavy surface resulting from changes in numbers of layers. Holdfast massive, woody, 1–5 cm across, divided; epilithic. Structure of filiform branchlets and stalks of a pseudoparenchymatous cortex 4–8 cells thick of isodiametric cells and a dense medulla of elongate filaments with occasional refractive ganglioid cells.

Secondary cortication of stalks extensive, with up to 38 growth rings, and the interstices between the filiform branchlets becoming filled by the secondary growth. A thin layer of sponge usually (but not always) covers the filiform branchlets and the upper stalks, but not the lower stalks.

Reproduction: Reproductive structures confined to special, small, compressed leaflets, 4–8 mm long, 2–4 mm broad and 500–600 µm thick, produced as extensions of the filiform branchlets mainly from the upper edges of fronds and largely free of sponge; cortex broad (5–10 cells) and medulla narrow (50–100 µm across).

Sexual thalli monoecious with the female structures on thicker central parts of the leaflet and male in sori nearer the margins. Carpogonial branches (Fig. 65G) situated on inner cortical cells, 2-celled, with no or indistinct ampullary filaments. Auxiliary cell ampullae (Fig. 67B) situated in outer medulla with branched secondary and tertiary filaments extending through the cortex, auxiliary cell elongate; carposporophyte (Fig. 67C) ovoid, with the basal auxiliary cell remaining, carposporangia ovoid, 6–9 µm in diameter, with the ampullary filaments remaining as a slight to moderate involucre. Spermatangia (Fig. 67D) in distinct sori with elongate initials 1 (–2) cells long and 1–2 µm in diameter and ovoid spermatangia.

Tetrasporangia (Fig. 65H) in nemathecia with paraphyses 40–50 µm and 3–4 cells long, 3–4 µm in diameter, tetrasporangia elongate-ovoid, 25–35 µm long and 8–10 µm in diameter, cruciately divided.

Type from W. Aust. (Preiss); lectotype in Herb. Sonder, MEL, 606035.

Selected specimens: Dongara, W. Aust., drift (Smith 2161, Aug. 1964; MELU, A39932). Yanchep, W. Aust., drift (Kraft, 5.ix.1990; MELU, A39934). Cathedral Rocks, Rottnest I., W. Aust., 13 m deep (Scott & Huisman, 3.xii.1980; MELU, A24075). Green I., Rottnest I., W. Aust., 21 m deep (Scott & Millar, 4.xii.1980; MELU, A24076). Geographe Bay, W. Aust. (1880; MEL, 606041). Hamelin Bay, W. Aust., 3–5 m deep on offshore island (Kraft & Ricker, 13.viii.1979; MELU, K6963). Breaksea I., Albany, W. Aust., 20–25 m deep (Huisman, 3.iv.1993; Murdoch). King George Sound, W. Aust. (types of C. marchesettioides and C. squamarioides in Herb. Agardh, LD, 23072 and 23078 resp.).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: Dongara to King George Sound, W. Aust.

Taxonomic notes: Codiophyllum flabelliforme typically grows horizontally or is pendulous from the roofs and sides of shaded reef undercuts, and only fragments are usually found in the drift (pers. comm. G.T. Kraft).


AGARDH, J.G. (1876). Species Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 3, Part 1 - Epicrisis systematis Floridearum, pp. i-vii, 1–724. (Weigel: Leipzig.)

AGARDH, J.G. (1879). Florideernes morphologi. K. Svenska Vetensk. Akad. Handl. 15(6), 1–199, Plates 1–33.

AGARDH, J.G. (1885). Till algemes systematik. VII. Florideae. Acta Univ. lund. 21, 1–120, Plate 1.

DE TONI, G.B. (1905). Sylloge Algarum omnium hucusque Cognitarum. Vol. 4. Florideae. Sect. 4, pp. 1523–1973. (Padua.)

HARVEY, W.H. (1859a). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 2, Plates 61–120. (Reeve: London.)

KYLIN, H. (1956). Die Gattungen der Rhodophyceen. (Gleerups: Lund.)

SCHMITZ, F. (1889). Systematische Uebersicht der bisher bekannten Gattungen der Florideen. Flora, Jena 72, 435–456, Plate 21.

SCHMITZ, F. (1895). Marine Florideen von Deutsch-Ostafrica. Bot. Jb. 21, 137–177.

SCOTT, F.J., WETHERBEE, R. & KRAFT, G.T. (1984). The morphology and development of some prominently stalked southern Australian Halymeniaceae (Cryptonemiales, Rhodophyta). B. The sponge-associated genera Thamnoclonium Kützing and Codiophyllum Gray. J. Phycol. 20, 286–295.

SONDER, O.G. (1845). Nova Algarum genera et species, quas in itinere ad oras occidentales Novae Hollandiae, collegit L. Preiss, Ph.Dr. Bot. Zeit. 3, 49–57.

SONDER, O.W. (1848). Algae. In Lehmann, C., Plantae Preissianae. Vol. 2, pp. 161–195. (Hamburg.)

SONDER, O.W. (1881). In Mueller, F., Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae. Supplementum ad volumen undecinum: Algae Australianae hactenus cognitae, pp. 1–42, 105–107. (Melbourne.)

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIA complete list of references.

Author: H.B.S. Womersley & J.A. Lewis

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (14 January, 1994)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIIA, Bangiophyceae and Florideophyceae (to Gigartinales)
Reproduced with permission from The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIA 1994, by H.B.S. Womersley. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia.

Illustrations in Womersley Part IIIA, 1994: PLATE 3 fig. 4; FIGS 65G, H, 67.

Plate 3 image

Plate 3   enlarge

PLATE 3 fig. 1. Hildenbrandia expansa at Point Bunbury, Apollo Bay, Vic. (AD, A60088). fig. 2. Sonderopelta coriacea at Erith I., Bass Strait (AD, A45218). Photo: S.A. Shepherd. fig. 3. Halymenia plana at West I., S. Aust. (AD, A42902). Photo: K. Branden. fig. 4. Codiophyllum flabelliforme at Breaksea I., Albany, W. Aust. (in Murdoch). Photo: J.M. Huisman.

Figure 65 image

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Fig. 65. A–C. Aeodes nitidissima (AD, A27934). A. Carpogonial branch ampulla within the cortex. B. Auxiliary cell ampulla with a 2-celled gonimoblast and possible connecting filament. C. Transverse section of cortex with tetrasporangia. D–F. Thamnoclonium dichotomum (D, E, AD, A22672; F, AD, A24872). D. Carpogonial branch ampulla within the cortex. E. Auxiliary cell ampulla within the cortex. F. Transverse section of cortex with tetrasporangia. G, H. Codiophyllum flabelliforme (MELU, 24075). G. Section of cortex with a carpogonial branch. H. Section of cortex with a tetrasporangial nemathecium.

Figure 67 image

Figure 67   enlarge

Fig. 67. Codiophyllum flabelliforme (A, MEL, 606041; B–D, MELU, 24075). A. Habit. B. Section of thallus with two auxiliary cell ampullae, that on the right a median section with the auxiliary cell. C. Section of a cystocarp with slight involucre and basal auxiliary cell. D. Section of cortex with a spermatangial sorus.

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