Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet

Audouinella bonnemaisoniae (Batters) Dixon in Parke & Dixon 1976: 590.

Phylum Rhodophyta – Class Florideophyceae – Order Acrochaetiales – Family Acrochaetiaceae

Selected citations: Garbary 1987: 28. Garbary et al. 1983: 14, fig. 3.


Colaconema bonnemaisoniae Batters 1896: 8. Chemin 1926: 1561. Levring 1953: 489. Woelkerling 1971: 42, fig. 17E.

Chantransia bonnemaisoniae (Batters) Levring 1937: 94, fig. 16A–C.

Colaconema deliseae Levring 1953: 489, fig. 21H–J. Woelkerling 1971: 43.

Thallus (Fig. 16N) endophytic; sporelings unknown. Prostrate system consisting of freely and irregularly branched filaments creeping between the cortical cells of the host. Cells (Fig. 16N) irregularly shaped, 2–8 µm in diameter and 8–30 (–45) µm long, LID 2–8, each cell containing (Chemin 1926) a parietal irregularly lobate rhodoplast (Fig. 16 0) and (Levring 1937, p. 94) one pyrenoid. Erect filaments 1–2 cells long, arising at irregular intervals from cells of the prostrate system.

Reproduction: Monosporangia (Fig. 16N) globose to more or less hemispherical (broad-based), (4–) 6–12 µm in diameter and 8–12 µm long, solitary or in clusters of 2–6, terminating erect filaments or situated directly on cells of the prostrate filaments.

Other reproductive structures unknown.

Type from Plymouth or Berwick-on-Tweed, England; lectotype in BM.

Selected specimens: Investigator Strait, S. Aust., in Bonnemaisonia(?), 41 m deep (Watson, 14.i.1970; AD, A38166) and 33 m deep (Watson, 24.i.1971; AD, A41061). Off Troubridge Light, S. Aust., in Bonnemaisonia, 17 m deep (Shepherd, 4.ii.1969; AD, A33440). Off Outer Harbor, S. Aust., in Bonnemaisonia(?), 46 m deep (Loan, 9.viii.1963; AD, A26653). Brighton, S. Aust., in B. australis, drift (Bienert, 12.xi.1965; AD, A29661). Pennington Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., in B. australis, drift (Womersley, 29.viii.l948, AD, A32120). Eaglehawk Neck, Tas., in Delisea fimbriata (Levring, 1.ii.1948; AD, A19844).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: Europe; Algeria; Pacific Mexico.

In southern Australia, from Investigator Strait, S. Aust., to Eaglehawk Neck, Tas.

Taxonomic notes: Sporangia are sparse, and details of rhodoplast and pyrenoid structure are not well preserved in the southern Australian material examined. Levring (1937, p. 94) found terminal hairs, but such hairs do not occur in southern Australian material and have not been reported by other authors.

Colaconema deliseae Levring (1953, p. 489, fig. 21H–J), described from Eaglehawk Neck, Tas., is here placed under A. bonnemaisoniae. Descriptions show that A. deliseae differs only in being slightly slenderer.


Audouinella americana (Jao) Garbary & Rueness 1980: 22. Garbary 1987: 19.

Colaconema americana Jao 1936: 237, pl. 13 fig. 8. Levring 1953: 489. Woelkerling 1971: 42; 1973b: 588.

This species was recorded by Levring from Pennington Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., on Asparagopsis, but specimens were not observed by Woelkerling (1971, p. 42). A. americana is closely related to A. bonnemaisoniae, differing in possessing larger and often swollen cells in the prostrate filaments; it seems doubtfully distinct from the latter species.

Stegenga (1985, p. 328, Table 1), has recorded (but without adequate justification) several acrochaetioid species from "southern Australia", based on Woelkerling (1971) and Levring (1953). Names used by Stegenga but not dealt with in the present monograph are:

Acrochaetium brebneri (Batters) Hamel, which is regarded by Stegenga (1985, p. 297) as an older name for Audouinella liagorae (Boergesen) Woelkerling. South & Tittley (1986, p. 34) considered A. brebneri might be "possibly a misinterpretation of in situ carpospore development in the host, Gloiosiphonia capillaris".

Acrochaetium moniliforme (Rosenvinge) Boergesen, recorded "as (part of) Audouinella microscopica", which Stegenga & Mulder (1979) discuss in detail.

Audouinella concrescens (Drew) Dixon, recorded as "Moe, pers. comm."

Colaconema nemalionis (De Notaris) Stegenga, recorded "as (part of) Audouinella daviesii". Other names in Stegenga Table 1 are included, some as synonyms, in the above account.


BATTERS, E.A.L. (1896). Some new British Marine Algae. J. Bot., Lond. 34, 6–11.

CHEMIN, E. (1926). Sur le développement des spores d'une Floridée endophyte: Colaconema Bonnemaisoniae Batt. C.R. Hebd. Séanc. Acad. Sci. 182, 1561–1563.

GARBARY, D. & RUENESS, J. (1980). Audouinella tetraspora, a new member of the Acrochaetiaceae (Rhodophyta) from Norway. Norw. J. Bot. 27, 17–22.

GARBARY, D.J. (1987). The Acrochaetiaceae (Rhodophyta): An annotated bibliography. Bibl. Phycol. 77, 1–267.

GARBARY, D.J., HANSEN, G.I. & SCAGEL, R.F. (1983). The marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington: Division Rhodophyta (red algae), Class Florideophyceae, Orders Acrochaetiales and Nemaliales. Syesis 15 (suppl.), 1–102.

JAO, C.-C. (1936). New Rhodophyceae from Woods Hole. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 63, 237–257.

LEVRING, T. (1937). Zur Kenntnis der Algenflora der norwegischen Westktiste. Lunds Univ. Årsskr. N.F. Avd. 2, 33 (8), 1–148, Plates 1–4.

LEVRING, T. (1953). The marine algae of Australia. I. Rhodophyta: Goniotrichales, Bangiales and Némalionales. Arkiv för Bot. Ser. 2, 2, 457–530.

PARKE, M. & DIXON, P.S. (1976). Check-list of British marine algae - third revision. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 56, 527–594.

SOUTH, G.R. & TITTLEY, I. (1986). A checklist and distributional index of the benthic marine algae of the North Atlantic Ocean. [Huntsman Marine Lab.: St. Andrews, and British Museum (N.H.): London.]

STEGENGA, H. & MULDER, A.S. (1979). Remarks on the Audouinella microscopica (Nag.)Woelkerling complex, with a brief survey of the genus Chromastrum Papenfuss (Rhodophyta, Nemaliales). Acta Bot. Neerl. 28, 289–311.

STEGENGA, H. (1985). The marine Acrochaetiaceae (Rhodophyta) of southern Africa. S. Afr. J. Bot. 51, 291–330.

WOELKERLING, W.J. (1971). Morphology and taxonomy of the Audouinella complex (Rhodophyta) in southern Australia. Aust. J. Bot. Suppl. 1, 1–91.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIA complete list of references.

Author: W.J. Woelkerling & H.B.S. Womersley

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (14 January, 1994)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Rhodophyta. Part IIIA, Bangiophyceae and Florideophyceae (to Gigartinales)
Reproduced with permission from The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part IIIA 1994, by H.B.S. Womersley. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra. Copyright Commonwealth of Australia.

Illustration in Womersley Part IIIA, 1994: FIG. 16N, 0.

Figure 16 image

Figure 16   enlarge

Fig. 16. A–H. Audouinella liagorae (A–C, E–G, AD, A30883; D, AD, A31371; H, AD, A32055). A. Prostrate system with short erect filaments bearing hairs and monosporangia. B. Prostrate system with monosporangia. C. Cells of an erect filament, each with a rhodoplast and pyrenoid. D. Carpogonium with attached spermatia on trichogyne. E. Immature carposporophyte. F. Mature carposporophyte. G. Erect branches with spermatangia. H. Erect branches with tetrasporangia. 1-M. Audouinella porphyrae (I–K, M, AD, A31808; L, AD, A24432). I. Branching pattern of endophytic filaments, arising from a spore, within the thallus of Porphyra. J. Prostrate filaments with hairs (sessile or with a single basal cell). K. Prostrate filament with short erect filaments with monosporangia. L. As for K, with relatively long erect filaments. M. Cells of prostrate and short erect filaments each with a rhodoplast and pyrenoid, and a monosporangium. N, 0. Audouinella bonnemaisoniae (AD, A32120). N. Part of thallus with monosporangia, within the host thallus. 0. Cells each with a rhodoplast and pyrenoid. [A–H, J–L, N after Woelkerling 1971.

Disclaimer Copyright Disclaimer Email Contact:
State Herbarium of South Australia
Government of South Australia Government of South Australia Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources